Selected content from the Animal Health and Production Compendium (© CAB International 2013). Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.
Whilst this information is provided by experts, we advise that users seek veterinary advice where appropriate and check OIE manuals for recent changes to regulations, diagnostic tests, vaccines and treatments.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Identity Pathogen/s Distribution Distribution Map for Africa Distribution Table for Africa Host Animals Systems Affected Epidemiology Impact: Economic Pathology Disease Course Disease Treatment Table Disease Treatment Vaccines Prevention and Control References Links to Websites Images
Preferred Scientific Name
East Coast fever
International Common Names
Corridor disease, Fortuna disease, January disease, Theileria parva infections, theileriosis in ruminants - exotic, theileriosis, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe theileriosis, Zimbabwean theileriosis
Bovine theileriosis is also known as East Coast Fever (ECF), Egyptian fever, Tropical theileriosis, Mediterranean Coast fever and Corridor disease. East Coast fever is essentially present in central and eastern Africa. Mediterranean Coast fever is present in northern Africa, southern Europe, Middle East and central Asia.
During 2011, ten countries reported 1,942 outbreaks of bovine theileriosis to the AU-IBAR, with 28,427 cases and 2133 deaths (AU-IBAR, 2011). The number of outbreaks recorded was highest in 2011 compared to previous years. The disease was reported mainly in the eastern part of the continent. Kenya recorded the highest number of outbreaks (1,356), Tanzania, the highest number of cases (14,700) and Zambia, the highest number of deaths (1,444). The table below shows details of the reporting countries with the related quantitative data.
Countries reporting theileriosis to the AU-IBAR in 2011
= Present, no further details = Widespread = Localised
= Confined and subject to quarantine = Occasional or few reports
= Evidence of pathogen = Last reported... = Presence unconfirmed
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further information for individual references may be available in the Animal Health and Production Compendium. A table for worldwide distribution can also be found in the Animal Health and Production Compendium.
|Country||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||References||Notes|
|Botswana||Localised||Norval et al., 1992|
|Burundi||Widespread||Tama, 1989; Norval et al., 1992|
|Central African Republic||Present||Norval et al., 1992|
|Congo||Localised||Norval et al., 1992|
|Kenya||Localised||Kariuki, 1989; Norval et al., 1992; Duffus, 1977|
|Malawi||Widespread||Chinombo et al., 1989; Norval et al., 1992; Moodie, 1977|
|Mozambique||Present||Mazibe & Lopes, 1989; Norval et al., 1992; Travassos Santos Dias, 1977|
|Rwanda||Widespread||Norval et al., 1992; Kiltz, 1977|
|Sudan||Localised||Norval et al., 1992; Shommein, 1977; Julla et al., 1989|
|Swaziland||Localised||Norval et al., 1992|
|Tanzania||Localised||Norval et al., 1992; Semuguruka, 1977|
|-Zanzibar||Present||Shambwana, 1989; Norval et al., 1992; Hofstedt, 1977|
|Uganda||Widespread||Otim, 1989; Norval et al., 1992; Oteng, 1977|
|Zimbabwe||Present||Munatswa, 1989; Norval et al., 1992|
|Bos indicus (zebu)||Domesticated host|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||Domesticated host|
|Capra hircus (goats)|
|Ovis aries (sheep)|
Blood and Circulatory System - Large Ruminants
Digestive - Large Ruminants
Mammary Glands - Large Ruminants
Multisystem - Large Ruminants
Nervous - Large Ruminants
Reproductive - Large Ruminants
Respiratory - Large Ruminants
Skin - Large Ruminants
Urinary - Large Ruminants
R. appendiculatus, the major field vector of T. parva inhabits wooded and shrubby grassland from South Sudan through East and Central Africa to South Africa (Norval et al., 1992). Its role and the role of the two other field vectors of T. parva, R. zambeziensis and R. duttoni, in the epidemiology of T. parva is discussed by Norval et al., (1991, 1992). Other species of tick can transmit T. parva experimentally, but are not known as field vectors (Norval et al., 1992). Molecular tools, using nucleic acid-based hybridization techniques, are helping to clarify the taxonomic identities and relationships of ticks (Sparagano and Jongejan, 1999) and detect pathogens within ticks (Figueroa and Buening, 1995; Sparagano and Jongejan, 1999; Sparagano et al., 1999).
Protective immunity to T. parva infections
Protection against T. parva appears to be mediated primarily by CD8 major histocompatibilty complex class I restricted cytotoxic lymphocytes (Mc Keever et al., 1999), with CD4T cells and g d -T-cells helping to contain infection by lyzing schizont-infected lymphocytes and producing parasite-inhibitory cytokines. A degree of resistance in young calves under conditions of endemic stability suggests a role for innate immune mechanisms.
Many factors are involved in assessing the economic impact of tick-borne diseases such as the theilerioses (Mukhebi, 1992). The economic impact of T. parva and its control in Eastern and Central Africa are estimated to be US$ 168 million per annum (Mukhebi, 1992). Eradication of T. parva from South Africa is calculated to have cost US$ 137 million (at the 1989 exchange rate) (Mazibe and Lopes Pereira, 1989).
At death, cases of East Coast fever (ECF) most commonly show evidence of pneumonia and pulmonary oedema with froth in the trachea, bronchi and nostrils (Brown, 1990a). The post-mortem findings in acute, lethal cases of ECF have been described (Irvin and Mwamachi, 1983; Levine, 1985; Lawrence et al., 1994b) (see pictures). The most dramatic pathological changes occur in the respiratory organs. In acute cases, animals may die before mucosal lesions become apparent in the gastrointestinal tract. In prolonged cases, following necrosis of the lymphoid tissue, ulceration may be seen in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine (Irvin and Mwamachi, 1983). The condition of the lymphoid organ may vary between infections caused by different parasite stocks and depending on the duration of disease reaction (Brown, 1990a). There may be generalized hyperplasia of the lymph nodes, spleen and lymphoid tissue in the liver, kidneys and gut or, despite aberrant lympho-proliferation, the nodes and spleen may be exhausted, the nodes oedematous, and the spleen dry and aplastic.
The general post-mortem findings are:
Carcasses: often a frothy exudate around the nostrils, emaciation, and dehydration in protracted cases.
Lymph nodes: in acute cases, oedematous, hyperaemic and may be greatly enlarged. In protracted cases they may be shrunken and necrotic.
Thymus: atrophy, with necrosis common in young animals.
Heart: petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages are common on the epicardium and endocardium. There may be a serous fluid in the pericardium.
Trachea and bronchi: may be full of white, frothy exudate.
Lungs: interlobular oedema, emphysema and hyperaemia.
Pleural cavity: petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the serosal surfaces. Serous fluid.
Spleen: mushy or dry, swollen or shrunken. Subcapsular ecchymotic haemorrhages are common.
Liver: usually normal although it may be enlarged and mottled.
Gall bladder: is usually normal.
Kidneys: petechial haemorrhages are common on the surface. Greyish-red or white 'pseudoinfarcts' of lymphoid tissue can be seen in the renal cortex and the cortex may be congested.
Bladder: small haemorrhagic lesions on the mucosal and serosal surface.
Peritoneum and viscera: petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages are common on the serosal surfaces.
Abomasum: ecchymotic and larger haemorrhages (up to 1cm) with ulceration common on the mucosa.
Small and large intestines: petechial haemorrhages on mucosal surfaces throughout.
Peyer's patches: may be swollen.
Nervous system: changes are rarely obvious. There may be some hyperaemia.
Bladder: small haemorrhagic lesions on the mucosal and serosal surfaces. There may be haemorrhages in the muscles, subcutaneous tissues and in the myelin sheath of nerves.
The pathogenic mechanisms associated with East Coast fever have been described in detail by Lawrence et al., 1994b, in particular the role of the coagulation cascade, the complement cascade and the vasoactive components. Non regenerative anaemia and icterus are sometimes seen in T. parva infections but evidence of an haemolytic process is lacking (Lawrence et al., 1994b).
There is increasing evidence for a pathogenic role of immune responses in bovine theilerioses. T. annulata and T. parva schizont-infected cells activate autologous lymphocytes non-specifically in vitro (Pearson et al., 1979, 1982; Campbell et al., 1995), if such activation occurs in vivo, it could cause a cascade of detrimental cytokine-related effects. The failure of animals undergoing primary infection with T. parva to mobilize protective cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and to control infection has been attributed to the down-regulation of type 1 T-cell responses by interleukin-10 (IL-10) produced by the schizont-infected lymphocytes (McKeever et al., 1997). The extensive lymphocytolysis and leucopenia seen in the late stages of East Coast fever may be due to the marked non-specific lytic activity observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells at this time.
T. parva is highly pathogenic to cattle, causing the lympho-proliferative diseases known as East Coast fever (Jura and Losos, 1980; Irvin and Mwamachi, 1983; Lawrence et al., 1994b), Corridor disease (Jura and Losos, 1980; Lawrence et al., 1994c) and January disease (Lawrence et al., 1994d).
East Coast fever (ECF)
The parasites causing East Coast fever (ECF) are mostly maintained by cattle-tick transmission (Lawrence et al., 1994b). Infection is subclinical or mild in African buffalo, which serve as a maintenance host in some areas. In the Asian buffalo, the disease resembles that seen in oxen. ECF is fatal in cattle of European origin (Bos taurus). African zebu or Sanga cattle (predominantly Bos indicus) respond variably to infection. Significant numbers of clinical cases occur in endemic areas only when susceptible cattle, particularly improved dairy or beef breeds, are introduced and become infested with ticks.
ECF is a non-contagious, febrile disease of cattle that is characterized by high fever, leucopenia and severe damage to the lymphoid system (Brown, 1990a). The disease may occur as a mild, per-acute, acute or sub-acute form (Lawrence et al., 1994b). In susceptible cattle, acute lethal disease normally lasts about three weeks, with a pre-patent period of five to twelve days after infection with sporozoites. Pronounced clinical symptoms develop as the schizont-infected cells disseminate rapidly.
The early clinical signs of ECF are pyrexia, leucopenia, listlessness, loss of appetite, deterioration of bodily condition and milk production, enlargement of lymph nodes draining the site of inoculation of the parasite, palpable enlargement of and heat in other nodes. As the disease progresses, appetite and rumination cease, and bodily condition degenerates rapidly. Emaciation follows cachexia, lethargy, weakness and recumbency increase. Animals are reluctant to move, tucked up and hang their heads. Constipation, lacrimation and photophobia occur. The mucous membranes are unaffected, animals become slightly hyperaemic or even anaemic, petechial haemorrhages are common under the tongue and on the vulva of infected animals. During the later stages, if disease is prolonged, diarrhoea and dysentery may develop and blood may appear in the faeces. Anaemia and icterus may occur and nodular skin lesions may develop. In the terminal stages, animals undergo severe respiratory distress, with a watery cough due to pulmonary oedema. As oedema increases, watery frothy fluid runs from the mouth and nostrils, animals become recumbent; copious quantities of fluid may pour from the nostrils and death is normally due to asphyxiation following pulmonary oedema.
Death may follow within a week. More commonly, the clinical phase lasts about two to three weeks. Symptoms other than hyperthermia and lymphadenopathy are rare (Brown, 1990a). In per-acute cases, animals may die before marked respiratory symptoms arise. Pregnant animals may abort during the pyrexic stage or recovery stage. Animals that develop severe respiratory or nervous symptoms rarely recover, those that survive often fail to regain normal levels of productivity. Sub-lethal acute disease may be followed by complete recovery or persist for months leading to chronic, often irreversible emaciation. Mortality among indigenous cattle may be negligible, but the disease significantly reduces growth and productivity.
Corridor disease and January disease
Corridor disease (Jura and Losos, 1980; Lawrence et al., 1994c) is an acute usually fatal disease of cattle that occurs sporadically wherever ticks transmit T. parva from infected African buffaloes to cattle. The 'buffalo-adapted' parasites causing this disease are usually non-pathogenic to African buffaloes, but they are not well adapted to cattle. The schizonts are fewer and smaller than in ECF and usually fail to develop to piroplasms. January disease, Zimbabwe theileriosis or Fortuna disease (Lawrence et al., 1994d) is an acute, strictly seasonal, frequently fatal disease of cattle caused by T. parva in the high and low areas of Zimbabwe. Its occurrence (December to May) coincides with the seasonal distribution of adult R. appendiculatus. Schizonts and piroplasms, when present, are scanty. Primary outbreaks are associated with new additions to the herd. Corridor disease and January disease have the same clinical signs as ECF, but the clinical symptoms last only a few days after the first onset of signs. Emaciation and diarrhoea are not seen in Corridor and January disease. Turning sickness of cattle (Lawrence et al., 1994e) is an aberrant form of infection characterized by the sudden onset of nervous signs caused by an accumulation of parasitized lymphoblasts in the cerebral blood vessels, leading to thrombosis and infarction. In East Africa, it is caused by T. parva and in South Africa by T. taurotragi.
|Drug||Dosage, administration and withdrawal times||Life stages||Adverse affects||Drug resistance||Type|
|buparvaquone||Two doses of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (48 hours apart). Given intramuscularly. Withdrawal times: For milk- 2 days For meat- 42 days Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||All Stages||Toxic||No||Drug|
|halofuginone lactate||Two doses of 1.2 mg/kg bodyweight (repeated administration) given orally. Withdrawal time: For milk- 8 days For meat- 24 days Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||All Stages||Toxic||No||Drug|
|infection and treatment method||Cryopreserved stabilate of an infectious dose of sporozoites (prepared from ground up ticks). If virulent, an antibiotic is given simultaneously; if avirulent, no antibiotic. Eastern Zambia: local strain of sporozoites administered with long acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg) given simultaneously. Tanzania, Uganda: cocktail of East African stocks. Kenya: experimentally using Marikebuni stock from Kenyan coast. Zimbabwe: Local 'Boleni' avirulent strain used with or without antibiotic treatment.||All Stages||Patent clinical disease: if necessary treat as above.||No||Vaccine|
|parvaquone||Two doses of 10 mg/kg milk bodyweight (48 hours apart). Given intramucularly. Withdrawal times: For milk- 14 days For meat- 28 days Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||All Stages||Toxic||No||Drug|
Chemotherapy of Theileria annulata and Theileria parva infections
The napthoquinones, parvaquone (Hawa et al., 1988; Gill et al., 1981; McHardy et al., 1983) and buparvaquone (McHardy et al., 1985; McHardy, 1989; McHardy, 1991), and the febrifuginone, halofuginone lactate (Schein and Voigt, 1979, 1981), will cure clinical disease resulting from infection with T. annulata or T. parva. However, the therapeutic dose of halofuginone (1.2 mg/kg) often produces side effects (Schein and Voigt, 1979). Parvaquone does not affect a parasitological cure and recovered animals may take several months to return to a normal level of productivity (Dolan, 1986).
Buparvaquone is a safe and effective drug, which can be used both prophylactically (during prepatent/incubation period) and therapeutically (during patent disease) against T. annulata (McHardy et al., 1985; Dhar et al., 1987, 1988, 1990; McHardy, 1991; Sharma and Mishra, 1990; Singh et al., 1993) and T. parva (McHardy et al., 1985; McHardy, 1991; Dolan et al., 1992). However, in young calves haematopoiesis stimulating drugs must be applied together with buparvaquone to avoid the deleterious effects of severe anaemia (Dhar et al., 1988).
Tetracyclines are effective against the schizonts of T. annulata (Gill et al., 1978; Jagdish et al., 1979; Pipano et al., 1981; Mallick et al., 1987) and of T. parva (Dolan, 1981), but only when used in large doses during the prepatent/incubation period of infection (Hashemi-Fershaki and Shad-Del, 1974).
The 8-aminoquinolones - pamaquin and primaquine- are active against the piroplasms of T. annulata (Zhang, 1987, 1997; Luo and Lu, 1997). Extracts of the plant Perganum harmala have a marked suppressive effect on natural infections of T. annulata (Hu et al., 1997).
|Vaccine||Dosage, Administration and Withdrawal Times||Life Stages||Adverse Affects|
|infection and treatment method||Cryopreserved stabilate of an infectious dose of sporozoites (prepared from ground up ticks). If virulent, an antibiotic is given simultaneously; if avirulent, no antibiotic. Eastern Zambia: local strain of sporozoites administered with long acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg) given simultaneously. Tanzania, Uganda: cocktail of East African stocks. Kenya: experimentally using Marikebuni stock from Kenyan coast. Zimbabwe: Local 'Boleni' avirulent strain used with or without antibiotic treatment.||-Cattle & Buffaloes: All Stages||Patent clinical disease: if necessary treat as above.|
Immunization against T. parva infections responsible for East Coast fever, January disease and Corridor disease depends on the infection and treatment method (Radley et al., 1975; Cunningham, 1977; Irvin et al., 1989: Lawrence et al., 1994b; Pegram et al., 1996; McKeever et al., 1999). In this method, cattle are infected with a dose of viable sporozoites and infection is then deliberately blocked by chemotherapy. This method albeit costly has proved successful in a number of field trials in several different African countries (Robson et al., 1977; Uilenberg et al., 1977; Dolan et al., 1980, 1987; Morzaria et al., 1987, 1988; Musisi et al., 1989; Berkvens, 1991). The avirulent 'Boleni' stock from Zimbabwe (Irvin et al., 1989) may serve as a suitable vaccine in the absence of chemotherapy. On farms where T. parva is a serious problem, immunization coupled with a strategic dipping programme could be economically attractive (Pegram et al., 1996). To avoid importing new strains into an area and because of the strain specificity of T. parva (McKeever et al., 1999), sporozoites should be prepared from local stocks. Details of vaccine preparation are summarised in Lawrence et al., 1994b. Immunization against T. parva by cell line vaccines is not feasible as 108 cells in 100 ml diluent are required for successful protection (Lawrence et al., 1994b) because schizonts fail to transfer easily to the host's lymphocytes (Innes et al., 1989). Efforts are therefore being directed towards developing sub-unit vaccines (McKeever et al., 1999; Hall et al., 2000). Molecular tools are proving useful in analysing the biological impact of introducing live vaccines of T. parva on population dynamics (Morzaria et al., 1999).
Abdilahi M, 1977. Theileriosis in Somalia. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 49.
African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/pan-african-animal-health-yearbook
Berkvens DL, 1991. Re-assessment of tick control after immunization against East Coast fever in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale, 71(Supplement 1):87-94; 7 ref.
Billiouw M, Brandt J, Vercruysse J, Speybroeck N, Marcotty T, Mulumba M, Berkvens D, 2005. Evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test as a diagnostic tool for East Coast fever in eastern Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology, 127(3/4):189-198. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
Bishop R, Musoke A, Morzaria S, Gardner M, Nene V, 2004. Theileria: intracellular protozoan parasites of wild and domestic ruminants transmitted by ixodid ticks. Parasitology, 129(Supplement):S271-S283.
Brown CGD, 1990. Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) of cattle. Parassitologia (Roma), 32(1):23-31; [Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on revision of strategies for the control of ticks and tick- borne diseases (Rome, 25-29 September 1989)]; 33 ref.
Campbell JDM, Howie SEM, Odling KA, Glass EJ, 1995. Theileria annulata induces aberrant T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 99(2):203-210; 31 ref.
Chinombo DO, Mzoma F, Musisi FL, 1989. Theileriosis in Malawi. Theileriosis in eastern, central and southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization held in Lilongwe, Malawi 20-22 September 1988, 12-16; 3 ref.
Dhar S, Malhotra DV, Bhushan C, Gautam OP, 1987. Chemoimmunoprophylaxis with buparvaquone against theileriosis in calves. Veterinary Record, 120(15):375; 1 ref.
Dhar S, Malhotra DV, Bhushan C, Gautam OP, 1988. Treatment of experimentally induced Theileria annulata infection in cross-bred calves with buparvaquone. Veterinary Parasitology, 27(3-4):267-275; 5 ref.
Dhar S, Malhotra DV, Bhushan C, Gautam OP, 1990. Chemoimmunoprophylaxis against bovine tropical theileriosis in young calves: a comparison between buparvaquone and long-acting oxytetracycline. Research in Veterinary Science, 49(1):110-112; 9 ref.
Dolan TT et al., 1980. East Coast fever: 4. Further studies on the protection of cattle immunized with a combination of theilerial strains. Veterinary Parasitology, 6:325-332.
Dolan TT, 1981. Progress in the chemotherapy of theileriosis. In: Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, eds. Advances in the control of theileriosis. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 186-208.
Dolan TT, 1987. Control of East Coast Fever: immunization to control East Coast Fever. Parasitology Today, 3(1):4-6, 10; 33 ref.
Dolan TT, 1989. Theileriasis in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a meeting on East Coast fever immunization held in Malawi, 18-20 September 1988. Nairobi, Kenya, Africa: International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, 174-176 pp. http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/ILRI/x5549E/x5549e00.htm#Contents
Dolan TT, 1989. Theileriasis: a comprehensive review. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des épizooties, 8(1):11-78; 128 ref.
Dolan TT, 1993. Ticks and Tick-Borne Disease Control. Proceedings of a joint OAU, FAO and ILRAD workshop held in Kampala, Uganda, 12-14 September 1991. Nairobi, Kenya, Africa: International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, 40 pp.
Dolan TT, 1999. Dogmas and misunderstandings in East Coast fever. In: Tropical Medicine and International Health, 4(9). A3-A11.
Dolan TT, Injairu R, Gisemba F, Maina JN, Mbadi G, Mbwiria SK, Mulela GHM, Othieno DAO, 1992. A clinical trial of buparvaquone in the treatment of East Coast fever. Veterinary Record, 130(24):536-538; 11 ref.
D'Oliveira C, Weide Mvan der, Habela MA, Jacquiet P, Jongejan F, 1995. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33(10):2665-2669; 25 ref.
Dschunkowsky E, Luhs J, 1904. Die piroplasmosen der Rinder. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheit und Hygiene 35:486-492.
Duffus WPH, 1977. Theileriosis in Kenya. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 28-30.
Figueroa JV, Buening GM, 1995. Nucleic acid probes as a diagnostic method for tick-borne hemoparasites of veterinary importance. Veterinary Parasitology, 57(1/3):75-92; 4 pp. of ref.
Food and Agriculture Organization, 1984, recd. 1986. Ticks and tick-borne disease control. A practical field manual. Volume I. Tick control. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization, xi + 299pp.
Gill BS et al., 1978. Chemoprophylaxis with tetracycline drugs in the immunization of cattle against Theileria annulata infection. International Journal of Parasitology, 8:467-469.
Gill BS et al., 1981. Chemotherapy against Theileria annulata. In: Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, eds. Advances in the Control of Theileriosis. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 218-222.
Gray MA, Luckins AG, Rae PF, Brown CGD, 1980. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for serodiagnosis of infections with Theileria parva and T. annulata. Reserach in Veterinary Science, 29(3):360-366.
Hall R et al., 2000. Reciprocal cross-protection induced by sporozoite antigens SPAG-1 from T. annulata and p67 from T. parva. Parasite Immunology, 22:223-230.
Hang ZZ, 1987. Elimination of the gametocytes of Theileria annulata of cattle by primaquin phosphate. Veterinary Parasitology, 23(1/2):11-21; 19 ref.
Hashemi-Fesharki R, Shad-Del FG, 1974. The therapeutic value of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (terramycin) in cattle infected experimentally with Theileria annulata. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 6:119-121.
Hawa H et al., 1988. Efficacy of buparvaquone in the treatment of naturally occurring theileriosis on Iraq. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 20:130-136.
Hofstedt L, 1977. Theileriosis in Zanzibar and Pemba. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December, 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 31-32.
Hu TingJun, Fan BingTang, Liang JiLan, Zhao SiXi, Dang Ping, Gao Fang, Dong MingXian, 1997. Observations on the treatment of natural haemosporidian infections by total alkaloid of Peganum harmala L. in cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):72S-76S; 3 ref.
Innes EA, Millar P, Brown CGD, Spooner RL, 1989. The development and specificity of cytotoxic cells in cattle immunized with autologous or allogeneic Theileria annulata-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines. Parasite Immunology, 11(1):57-68; 39 ref.
International livestock research institute, 2012. Protecting pastoral cattle against lethal disease. Nairobi, Kenya, Africa: International Livestock Research Institute, 3 pp. http://220.127.116.11/ILRIPubAware/Uploaded%20Files/20041029114520.04BR_IMP_ProtectingPastoralCattleAgainstLethalDisease.pdf
Irvin AD, Morzaria SP, Munatswa FC, Norval RAI, 1989. Immunization of cattle with a Theileria parva bovis stock from Zimbabwe protects against challenge with virulent T. p. parva and T. p. lawrencei stocks from Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology, 32(4):271-278; 21 ref.
Irvin AD, Mwamachi DM, 1983. Clinical and diagnostic features of East Coast fever (Theileria parva) infection of cattle. Veterinary Record, 113:192-198.
Jagdish S et al., 1979. Chemoprophylactic immunisation against bovine tropical theileriosis. Veterinary Record, 104:140-142.
Julla IJ, Tingwa NO, Kwajok Vl, 1989. Theileriosis in the Equatoria Region of Sudan. In: Dolan TT, ed. Theileriosis in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization. Lilongwe, Malawi. 20-22 September 1988. Nairobi, Kenya: International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, 19-21.
Jura WGZO, Losos GJ, 1980. A comparative study of the diseases in cattle caused by Theileria lawrencei and Theileria parva. 1. Clinical signs and parasitological observations. Veterinary Parasitology, 7:275-286.
Kariuki DP, 1989. Theileriosis in Kenya. Theileriosis in eastern, central and southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization held in Lilongwe, Malawi 20-22 September 1988, 5-11; 2 ref.
Kiltz HH, 1977. Theileriosis in Rwanda. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 33-36.
Lawrence JA, de Vos AJ, Irvin AD, 1994. Corridor disease. Ibid, 326-328.
Lawrence JA, de Vos AJ, Irvin AD, 1994. East Coast fever. Ibid, 309-325.
Lawrence JA, de Vos AJ, Irvin AD, 1994. Theileriosis In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson GR, Tustin RC, Kriek NPJ, eds. Infectious diseases of livestock with special reference to South Africa. Volume 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 307-308.
Lawrence JA, de Vos AJ, Irvin AD, 1994. Turning sickness. Ibid, 331-333.
Lawrence JA, de Vos AJ, Irvin AD, 1994. Zimbabwe theileriosis. Ibid, 329-330.
Levine ND, 1985. Genus Theileria. Protozoan parasites of domestic animals and man. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: Burgess Publishing Company, 336-346.
Mallick KP et al., 1987. Immunization of neonatal bovines against Theileria annulata by an infection and treatment method. Veterinary Parasitology, 24:169-173.
Mazibe M, Lopes Pereira C, 1989. Theileriosis in Mozambique. Theileriosis in eastern, central and southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization held in Lilongwe, Malawi 20-22 September 1988, 17-18; 4 ref.
McHardy N, 1989. Multinational research on the use of buparvaquone (Butalex) for the control of theileriosis. International Symposium on Mycoplasmosis and Theileriosis, 11-13 October, 1989, Pendik, Turkey,., 114-126; [Pendik Animal Diseases Central Research Institute Publication No. 10].
McHardy N, 1990. Butalex (buparvaquone) - a new therapeutic for theileriosis. First Asian Congress of Veterinary Parasitology, Patna, Bihar, India, 26-28 November 1990 (lead papers and abstracts)., 31-38; 9 ref.
McHardy N, Hudson AT, Morgan DWT, Rae MDG, Dolan TT, 1983. Activity of 10 naphthoquinones, including parvaquone (993C) and menoctone, in cattle artificially infected with Theileria parva.. Research in Veterinary Science, 35(3):347-353; 16 ref.
McHardy N, Wekesa LS, Hudson AT, Randall AW, 1985. Antitheilerial activity of BW720C (buparvaquone): a comparison with parvaquone. Research in Veterinary Science, 39(1):29-33; 7 ref.
McKeever DJ, Nyanjui JK, Ballingall KT, 1997. In vitro infection with Theileria parva is associated with IL10 expression in all bovine lymphocyte lineages. Parasite Immunology, 19(7):319-324; 31 ref.
McKeever DJ, Taracha ELN, Morrison WI, Musoke AJ, Morzaria SP, 1999. Protective immune mechanisms against Theileria parva: evolution of vaccine development strategies. Parasitology Today, 15(7):263-267; 47 ref.
Moodie PA, 1977. Theileriasis in Malawi. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December, 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 25-27.
Morrison WI, MacHugh ND, Lalor PA, 1996. Pathogenicity of Theileria parva is influenced by the host cell type infected by the parasite. Infection and Immunity, 64(2):557-562; 27 ref.
Morrison WI, McKeever DJ, 2006. Current status of vaccine development against Theileria parasites. Parasitology, 133(Supplement S2):S169-S187. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par
Morzaria SP et al., 1999. Development of sero-diagnostic and molecular tools for the control of important tick-borne pathogens of cattle in Africa. Parassitologia, 41(Suppl. 1):73-80.
Morzaria SP, Irvin AD, Taracha E, Spooner PR, Voigt WP, Fujinaga T, Katende J, 1987. Immunization against East Coast fever; the use of selected stocks of Theileria parva for immunization of cattle exposed to field challenge. Veterinary Parasitology, 23(1/2):23-41; 28 ref.
Morzaria SP, Irvin AD, Wathanga J, D'Souza D, Katende J, Young AS, Scott J, Gettinby G, 1988. The effect of East Coast fever immunisation and different acaricidal treatments on the productivity of beef cattle. Veterinary Record, 123(12):313-320; 20 ref.
Mukhebi AW, 1992. Economic impact of theileriosis and its control in Africa. The epidemiology of theileriosis in Africa [by Norval, R.A.I.; Perry, B.D.; Young, A.S.]., 379-403; many ref.
Munatswa FC, 1989. Theileriosis in Zimbabwe. Theileriosis in eastern, central and southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization held in Lilongwe, Malawi 20-22 September 1988, 31; 1 ref.
Musisi FL, Quiroga JC, Ngulube B, Kanhai GK, 1989. An East Coast fever immunization field trial at Kasoba, Malawi. Theileriosis in eastern, central and southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization held in Lilongwe, Malawi 20-22 September 1988, 71-76; 2 ref.
Nambota A, Samui K, Sugimoto C, Kakuta T, Onuma M, 1994. Theileriosis in Zambia: etiology, epidemiology and control measures. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 42(1):1-18.
Nene V et al., 2000. Theileria parva genomics reveals an atypical apicomplexan genome. International Journal of Parasitology, 30:465-474.
Norval RAI, Lawrence JA, Young AS, Perry BD, Dolan TT, Scott J, 1991. Theileria parva: influence of vector, parasite and host relationships on the epidemiology of theileriosis in southern Africa. Parasitology, 102(3):347-356; 74 ref.
Norval RAI, Perry BD, Young AS, 1992. The epidemiology of theileriosis in Africa. The epidemiology of theileriosis in Africa., xiii + 481 pp.; 61 pp. of ref.
OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home
Oteng AK, 1977. Theileriasis in Uganda. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December, 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 21-24.
Otim CP, 1989. Theileriosis in Uganda. Theileriosis in eastern, central and southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization held in Lilongwe, Malawi 20-22 September 1988, 29-30.
Pearson TW et al., 1982. Studies on the induction and specificity of cytotoxicity to Theileria-transformed cell lines. Journal of Immunology, 128:2509-2513.
Pearson TW, Lundin LB, Dolan TT, Stagg DA, 1979. Cell-mediated immunity to Theileria-transformed cells. Nature, 281:678-680.
Pegram RG, James AD, Bamhare C, Dolan TT, Hove T, Kanhai GK, Latif AA, 1996. Effects of immunisation against Theileria parva on beef cattle productivity and economics of control options. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 28(1):99-111; 26 ref.
Pipano E, Samish M, Krigel Y, Yeruham L, 1981. Immunization of Friesian cattle agaisnt Theileria annulata by the infection-treatment method. British Veterinary Journal, 137:416-420.
Robson J et al., 1977. East Coast fever immunisation trials in Uganda: Field exposure of zebu cattle immunized with three isolates of Theileria parva. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 9:219-231.
Rowlands GJ, Musoke AJ, Morzaria SP, Nagda SM, Ballingall KT, McKeever DJ, 2000. A statistically derived index for classifying East Coast fever reactions in cattle challenged with Theileria parva under experimental conditions. Parasitology, 120(4):371-381.
Schein E, Voigt WP, 1979. Chemotherapy of bovine theileriosis with halofuginone. Acta Tropica, 36:391-394.
Schein E, Voigt WP, 1981. Chemotherapy of theileriosis with halofuginone. In: Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, eds. Advances in the Control of Theileriosis. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 218-222.
Sempebwa-Serugo CM, 1977. Theileriosis in Zambia. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 50-52.
Semuguruka WD, 1977. Theileriosis in Tanzania. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 39-42.
Shambwana IA, 1989. Theileriosis on Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Theileriosis in eastern, central and southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization held in Lilongwe, Malawi 20-22 September 1988, 27-28; 2 ref.
Sharma NN, Mishra AK, 1990. Treatment of bovine tropical theileriosis with buparvaquone. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 22(1):63-65; 5 ref.
Shommein AM, 1977. Theileriosis in the Sudan. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 46-48.
Singh J, Gill JS, Kwatra MS, Sharma KK, 1993. Treatment of theileriosis in crossbred cattle in the Punjab. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 25(2):75-78; 14 ref.
Sparagano O, Gubbels JM, Vos Ade, Jongejan F, 1999. Molecular diagnosis of theileriosis and babesiosis in cattle and vectors. épidémiologie et Santé Animale, No. 35:81-85; 5 ref.
Sparagano O, Jongejan F, 1999. Molecular characterization of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Parassitologia, 41(Suppl. 1):101-105.
Stockham SL, Kiemtrup AM, Conrad PA, Schmidt DA, Scott MA, Robinson TW, Tyler JW, Johnson GC, Carson CA, Cuddihee P, 2000. Theileriosis in a Missouri beef herd caused by Theileria buffeli: case report, herd investigation, ultrastructure, phylogenetic analysis, and experimental transmission. Veterinary Pathology, 37(1):11-21; 46 ref.
Tama E, 1989. East Coast fever immunization in Burundi. Theileriosis in eastern, central and southern Africa. Proceedings of a workshop on East Coast fever immunization held in Lilongwe, Malawi 20-22 September 1988, 37-38.
Theiler A, 1904. East Coast fever. Transvaal Agricultural Journal, 2:421-438.
Travassos Santos Dias JA, 1977. Theileriosis in Mozambique. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 43-45.
Uilenberg G et al., 1977. Studies on Theileridae (Sporozoa) in Tanzania. X. A large scale field trial on immunization against cattle theileriosis. Tropenmedizin Parasitenkunde, 28:499-506.
Uilenberg G, Mpangala C, McGregor W, Callow LL, 1977a. Biological differences between African Theileria mutans (Theiler 1906) and two benign species of Theileria in cattle in Australia and Britain. Australian Veterinary Journal, 53:271-273.
Zhang ZH, 1997. A general review on the prevention and treatment of Theileria annulata in China. Veterinary Parasitology, 70(1/3):77-81.
Date of report: 03/06/2013
© CAB International 2013. Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.