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Selected content from the Animal Health and Production Compendium (© CAB International 2013). Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.

Whilst this information is provided by experts, we advise that users seek veterinary advice where appropriate and check OIE manuals for recent changes to regulations, diagnostic tests, vaccines and treatments.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


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Identity    Overview    Distribution Map for Africa    Distribution Table for Africa    Host Animals    References    Links to Websites    OIE Reference Experts and Laboratories    Images

 

 Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
Echinococcus
International Common Names
English
echinococcosis - exotic
Parasitoses name
echinococcosis
echinococcosis/hydatidosis
hydatidosis

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Overview

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

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Distribution Map for Africa

Distribution Map for AfricaDistribution Map for Africa

present, no further details = Present, no further details    widespread = Widespread    localised = Localised
confined and subject to quarantine = Confined and subject to quarantine    occasional or few reports = Occasional or few reports
evidence of pathogen = Evidence of pathogen    last reported = Last reported...    presence unconfirmed = Presence unconfirmed

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 Distribution Table for Africa

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further information for individual references may be available in the Animal Health and Production Compendium. A table for worldwide distribution can also be found in the Animal Health and Production Compendium.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes
ASIA
AfghanistanNo information available    OIE, 2009 
ArmeniaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
AzerbaijanDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
BahrainDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
BangladeshPresent    OIE, 2009 
BhutanDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
CambodiaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
ChinaRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
-Hong KongNo information available    OIE, 2009 
Georgia (Republic of)Reported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
IndiaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
IndonesiaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
IranDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
IraqPresent    OIE, 2009 
IsraelDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
JapanNo information available    OIE, 2009 
JordanPresent    OIE, 2009 
KazakhstanDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
Korea, DPRDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Korea, Republic ofDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
KuwaitDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
KyrgyzstanRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
LaosNo information available    OIE, 2009 
LebanonAbsent, reported but not confirmed    OIE, 2009 
MalaysiaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
-SabahDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
-SarawakNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MongoliaPresent    OIE, 2009 
MyanmarNo information available    OIE, 2009 
NepalDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
OmanNo information available    OIE, 2009 
PakistanNo information available    OIE, 2009 
PhilippinesNo information available    OIE, 2009 
QatarNo information available    OIE, 2009 
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
SingaporeDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
Sri LankaDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
SyriaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
TaiwanDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
TajikistanNo information available    OIE, 2009 
ThailandNo information available    OIE, 2009 
TurkeyNo information available    OIE, 2009 
TurkmenistanNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
UzbekistanReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
VietnamNo information available    OIE, 2009 
YemenNo information available    OIE, 2009 
AFRICA
AlgeriaPresent    OIE, 2012 
AngolaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
BeninDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
BotswanaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
Burkina FasoNo information available    OIE, 2009 
BurundiNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
CameroonReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Cape VerdeNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Central African RepublicNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ChadNo information available    OIE, 2009 
CongoNo information available    OIE, 2009 
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Côte d'IvoireLast reported1998   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
DjiboutiPresent    OIE, 2012 
EgyptPresent    OIE, 2012 
Equatorial Guinea     OIE, 2012 
EritreaPresent    OIE, 2012 
EthiopiaPresent    OIE, 2012 
GabonNo information available    OIE, 2009 
GambiaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
GhanaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
GuineaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
Guinea-BissauNo information available    OIE, 2009 
Kenya     OIE, 2012 
LesothoDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
LibyaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MadagascarDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
Malawi     OIE, 2012 
MaliNo information available    OIE, 2009 
MauritiusDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
MoroccoPresent    OIE, 2012 
MozambiqueRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
NamibiaPresent    OIE, 2012 
NigeriaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
RéunionLast reported1995   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
RwandaDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SenegalNo information available    OIE, 2009 
SeychellesDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SomaliaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
South AfricaLast reported2011   OIE, 2012 
SudanDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
SwazilandPresent    OIE, 2012 
TanzaniaPresent    OIE, 2012 
TogoDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
TunisiaPresent    OIE, 2009 
UgandaPresent    OIE, 2012 
ZambiaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
ZimbabweDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
NORTH AMERICA
BermudaDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
CanadaRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
GreenlandDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
MexicoDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
USARestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
-GeorgiaPresent    OIE, 2009 
CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
BarbadosDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
BelizeDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Cayman IslandsDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Costa RicaDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
CubaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
CuraçaoDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
DominicaDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Dominican RepublicDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
El SalvadorNo information available    OIE, 2009 
GuadeloupeNo information available    OIE, 2009 
GuatemalaRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
HaitiNo information available    OIE, 2009 
HondurasDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
JamaicaDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
MartiniqueDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
NicaraguaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
PanamaDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Trinidad and TobagoNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SOUTH AMERICA
ArgentinaPresent    OIE, 2009 
BoliviaAbsent, reported but not confirmed    OIE, 2009 
BrazilRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
ChilePresent    OIE, 2009 
ColombiaDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
EcuadorPresent    OIE, 2009 
Falkland IslandsReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
French GuianaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
GuyanaDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ParaguayNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
PeruRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
UruguayPresent    OIE, 2009 
VenezuelaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
EUROPE
AlbaniaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
AndorraNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
AustriaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
BelarusDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
BelgiumDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
BulgariaPresent    OIE, 2009 
CroatiaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
CyprusDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
Czech RepublicPresent    OIE, 2009 
DenmarkDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
EstoniaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
FinlandPresent    OIE, 2009 
FranceNo information available    OIE, 2009 
GermanyPresent    OIE, 2009 
GreeceRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
HungaryDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
IcelandDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
IrelandDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
Isle of Man (UK)Disease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ItalyPresent    OIE, 2009 
JerseyDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
LatviaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
LiechtensteinDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
LithuaniaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
LuxembourgPresent    OIE, 2009 
MacedoniaPresent    OIE, 2009 
MaltaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
MoldovaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MontenegroNo information available    OIE, 2009 
NetherlandsDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
NorwayDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
PolandNo information available    OIE, 2009 
PortugalPresent    OIE, 2009 
RomaniaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
Russian FederationPresent    OIE, 2009 
SerbiaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
SlovakiaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
SloveniaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
SpainRestricted distribution    OIE, 2009 
SwedenDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
SwitzerlandPresent    OIE, 2009 
UkraineDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
United Kingdom
-Northern IrelandLast reported1994   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
United KingdomDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
Yugoslavia (former)Disease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
OCEANIA
AustraliaPresent    OIE, 2009 
French PolynesiaDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
New CaledoniaDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
New ZealandDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
SamoaDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
VanuatuDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 

 

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Host Animals

Animal name Context 
Bos indicus (zebu)  
Bos taurus (cattle)  
Ovis aries (sheep)  

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References

African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/pan-african-animal-health-yearbook

Craig PS, Rogan MT, Allan JC, 1996. Detection, screening and community epidemiology of taeniid cestode zoonoses: cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis. Advances in Parasitology, 38:169-250.

Deplazes P, Eckert J, 2001. Veterinary aspects of alveolar echinococcosis - a zoonosis of public health significance. Veterinary Parasitology [Special issue: Promoting advancement, preserving tradition. Plenary papers of the 18th international conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, Stresa, Italy, 26-30 August 2001.], 98(1/3):65-87.

Eckert J, Deplazes P, 2004. Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17(1):107-135.

Hüttner M, Romig T, 2009. Echinococcus species in African wildlife. Parasitology, 136(10):1089-1095. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par

Jenkins DJ, Romig T, Thompson RCA, 2005. Emergence/re-emergence of Echinococcus spp. - a global update. International Journal for Parasitology, 35(11/12):1205-1219.

Lightowlers MW, 2006. Cestode vaccines: origins, current status and future prospects. Parasitology, 133(Supplement S2):S27-S42. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par

Lightowlers MW, Gottstein B, 1995. Echinococcosis/hydatidosis: antigens, immunological and molecular diagnosis. Echinococcus and hydatid disease [ed. by Thompson, R. C. A.\Lymbery, A. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 355-410.

Maillard S, Benchikh-Elfegoun MC, Knapp J, Bart JM, Koskei P, Gottstein B, Piarroux R, 2007. Taxonomic position and geographical distribution of the common sheep G1 and camel G6 strains of Echinococcus granulosus in three African countries. Parasitology Research, 100(3):495-503. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100447

Mathis A, Deplazes P, 2006. Copro-DNA tests for diagnosis of animal taeniid cestodes. Parasitology International [Taeniasis/cysticercosis and echinococcosis with focus on Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Cestode Zoonoses, Asahikawa, Japan, 2005.], 55(Supplement):S87-S90.

Moro P, Schantz PM, 2009. Echinococcosis: a review. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 13(2):125-133. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7CPT-4TPWW38-2&_user=6686535&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2009&_rdoc=4&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2317975%232009%23999869997%23948074%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=17975&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=41&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=4d3aa505402598c1e53adc8eb1d9a49a

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

Omer RA, Dinkel A, Romig T, Mackenstedt U, Elnahas AA, Aradaib IE, Ahmed ME, Elmalik KH, Adam A, 2010. A molecular survey of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan. Veterinary Parasitology, 169(3/4):340-346. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

Permin A, Hansen JW, 1994. Review of echinococcosis/hydatidosis: a zoonotic parasitic disease. World Animal Review, No.78:67-72.

Romig T, Omer RA, Zeyhle E, Hüttner M, Dinkel A, Siefert L, Elmahdi IE, Magambo J, Ocaido M, Menezes CN, Ahmed ME, Mbae C, Grobusch MP, Kern P, 2011. Echinococcosis in sub-Saharan Africa: emerging complexity. Veterinary Parasitology [Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Veterinary Parasitology College (EVPC), Munich, Germany, 28-30 April 2010.], 181(1):43-47. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

Sadjjadi SM, 2006. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Parasitology International [Taeniasis/cysticercosis and echinococcosis with focus on Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Cestode Zoonoses, Asahikawa, Japan, 2005.], 55(Supplement):S197-S202.

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Links to Websites

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OIE Reference Experts and Laboratories

(http://www.oie.int, accessed 5 June 2013)

Prof. Masao Kamiya
Laboratory of Environmental Zoology
Department of Biosphere and Environmental Sciences
Faculty of Environmental Systems
Rakuno Gakuen University
Midori-machi 582, Ebetsu 069-8501
JAPAN
Tel: +81-11 388 49 09 Fax: +81-11 388 49 09
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Images

Echinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts. © John W. McGarryEchinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts. © John W. McGarry
 
Echinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts. © John W. McGarryEchinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts. © John W. McGarry
 

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Date of report: 03/06/2013

© CAB International 2013. Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.