The Ethiopian project faced many bureaucratic difficulties that resulted in many delays. Delays in procurement resulted in the vehicles arriving only in the last few months of the project. The main achievements of the Ethiopian project have been in the area of training and it is expected that the newly trained personnel and the new vehicles supplied will be used in tsetse control activities that are integrated with rural development.
Two major outbreaks of trypanosomiasis in cattle were successfully controlled in the FITCA project area in Western Kenya during the project lifetime. Tsetse fly numbers were reduced by 95% using odour-baited insecticide-impregnated targets. The targets were made, installed, maintained and monitored by the farming communities under the supervision of project and government staff.
Spraying of cattle with insecticide was introduced as the most suitable method for farmers to maintain tsetse control once the initial high fly numbers had been reduced by targets. Farmers' groups were encouraged and assisted in erecting crush pens for spraying cattle and the sustainability of the tsetse control achieved will depend on the veterinary services ensuring that these farmers groups continue to spray at least 5 –10% of the livestock in infested areas every two weeks. Dairy cattle, though very limited in numbers in the project area, were protected from the disease through the use of insecticide impregnated netting around zero-grazing units.
Increased utilisation of farming land was promoted by the project as a means of decreasing tsetse habitat. Animal traction and improved crop production systems were important project interventions. Efforts were made to encourage private sector provision of animal health and AI services. The use of improved and upgraded breeds can provide farmers with more income from their livestock and thus enable them to sustain private animal health services and maintain tsetse control. However, lack of resources and no access to credit remained a major constraint to the adoption of new technologies in these very poor communities.
In its final year the Kenya project produced some useful extension material on
- insecticide sprayed cattle for tsetse and tick control
- animal traction
- calf rearing
The implementation of the project through two local consultancy companies proved to be a valuable innovative approach that served to promote partnership between the private sector, the government and the communities. The project purpose was to enhance the capacity of the target communities to control livestock diseases in the Tanga and Kagera regions, particularly tsetse and trypanosomiasis. Cattle dipped in insecticide were promoted as a means of tsetse and tick control.
The project has provided support for government in their tsetse and trypanosomiasis control activities. Passive surveillence of human sleeping sickness and the treatment of infected patients has been effective in reducing the number of cases in South-East Uganda during the life time of the project. Vector control through the use of insecticide-impregnated traps has also been effective.
However, there are concerns about the spread of the disease northwards through the uncontrolled movement of cattle infected with the human infective parasite.
Improved animal health and production has been achieved through encouraging and assisting farmers to spray their cattle with insecticide. This vector control method has been promoted by a veterinary pharmeceutical company for some years. The project, together with an NGO, has provided cross bred cattle for zero-grazing units where insecticide impregnated netting and insecticide in the form of pour-ons has been used to protect the cattle.
The use of draught oxen and improved crop husbandry methods have commenced and will continue through the second phase of the project.