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Foot and Mouth Disease in Pigs

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Selected content from the Animal Health and Production Compendium (© CAB International 2013). Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.

Whilst this information is provided by experts, we advise that users seek veterinary advice where appropriate and check OIE manuals for recent changes to regulations, diagnostic tests, vaccines and treatments.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


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Identity    Pathogen/s    Overview    Distribution    Distribution Map for Africa    Distribution Table for Africa    Host Animals    Systems Affected    Epidemiology    Diagnosis    Disease Course    Disease Treatment Table    Disease Treatment    Vaccines    Prevention and Control    References    Links to Websites    OIE Reference Experts and Laboratories    Images

 

 Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
foot-and-mouth disease in pigs
International Common Names
English acronym
FMD
English
foot and mouth, foot and mouth disease in ruminants and pigs - exotic
Spanish
aftosa, fiebre aftosa
French
fièvre aphteuse

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 Pathogen/s

foot-and-mouth disease virus

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Overview

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven footed animals (artiodactyls), characterised by fever, vesicles on the buccal mucosa and feet and sudden death in the young of susceptible species. FMD is caused by an aphthovirus, an RNA virus with a positive-sense single-stranded genome, in the family Picornaviridae. There are seven serotypes of FMD virus, namely O, A, C, ASIA 1, SAT (South African Territories) 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3. Domestic cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, buffalo and all species of wild ruminant and pig are susceptible. FMD is an OIE (Office International des Epizooties) List disease, and is probably the most important constraint to trade in live animals and their products (Kitching, 1998).

The distribution section contains data from OIE's World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

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Distribution

FMD is endemic in Africa, most of Asia, the Middle East and parts of South America. Analysis of outbreak data over a number of years has demonstrated the global clustering of FMD viruses and identified 7 virus pools, where multiple serotypes occur but within which are topotypes that remain mostly confined to that pool (Hammond et al., 2011). The World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD®) have defined 3 pools covering Europe, the Middle-East and Asia containing serotypes O, A and Asia 1, 3 pools covering Africa containing serotypes O, A, and SATs 1, 2 & 3 and 1 pool covering the Americas containing serotypes O and A. This distribution enables a regional approach to be taken to assist global control of FMD. An increased regional knowledge of FMD outbreaks and identification of these within particular reservoirs or pools of FMD activity can greatly assist globally informed regional FMD control programmes. It also follows that if vaccination is to be a major tool for control, each pool could benefit from investigation into the use of tailored or more specific vaccines relevant to the topotypes present in that pool, rather than a continued reliance on the currently more widely available vaccines.

Over recent years there has been a notable increase in the incidence of FMD outbreaks reported in Asia and the Middle East and a concurrent spread of the serotypes O (Pan-Asia 2 strain) and A (Iran 05 strain). In 2010-2011 Japan, Republic of Korea and Bulgaria all suffered type O FMD outbreaks, losing their status as countries listed by OIE as FMD-free without vaccination. In 2012 Japan and Bulgaria regained their status as free without vaccination but the Republic of Korea has embarked on a prolonged programme of vaccination.

Current trends show that globally the serotype most commonly identified is type O, with more than 80% of isolates characterized by the OIE/FAO FMD reference laboratory network in 2010-2011 being of this serotype (Hammond, 2012). However, in 2011-2012 there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of serotypes Asia 1 in pool 3 and in early 2012 a rapid spread of SAT 2 through North Africa into Libya and Egypt and on into the Middle East to the Palestine Autonomous Territories. In 2012 so far WRLFMD® have observed that more than 25% of samples tested were found to be type Asia 1 and 14% to be SAT 2 (Hammond et al., 2012).

Serotype C has not been reported since 2004 where it was detected in Brazil and Kenya. However, it may still be present in regions where surveillance is minimal or not possible due to difficult or restricted access. The SAT serotypes have never established outside of Africa, although in 2000, SAT 2 was found in Saudi Arabia and in 2012 spread from Egypt to Palestine Autonomous Territories.

The World Reference Laboratory for foot and mouth disease (WRLFMD®) located at the renamed Pirbright Institute, UK (formerly The Institute for Animal Health) is responsible for maintaining global surveillance and coordinating the OIE/FAO FMD reference laboratory network. Much of the information generated by WRLFMD® is available on their website located at http://www.pirbright.ac.uk/.

OIE publishes a report each year in which it lists FMD-free countries (see: www.oie.int/en/animal-health-in-the-world/official-disease-status/fmd/list-of-fmd-free-members/).

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Distribution Map for Africa

 Distribution Map for AfricaDistribution Map for Africa

present, no further details = Present, no further details    widespread = Widespread    localised = Localised
confined and subject to quarantine = Confined and subject to quarantine    occasional or few reports = Occasional or few reports
evidence of pathogen = Evidence of pathogen    last reported = Last reported...    presence unconfirmed = Presence unconfirmed

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 Distribution Table for Africa

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further information for individual references may be available in the Animal Health and Production Compendium. A table for worldwide distribution can also be found in the Animal Health and Production Compendium.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes
AFRICA
AlgeriaLast reported1999   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
AngolaLast reported2001   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
BeninReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
BotswanaLast reported2003   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Burkina FasoReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
BurundiReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Cameroon     OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Cape VerdeDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Central African RepublicReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ChadReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Côte d'IvoireCAB Abstracts data mining    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
DjiboutiDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
EgyptLast reported2000   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
EritreaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
EthiopiaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
GhanaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
GuineaLast reported2001   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Guinea-BissauDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
KenyaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
LibyaLast reported2003Native  OIE, 2004c; OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MadagascarDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Malawi     OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MaliReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MauritiusDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MoroccoLast reported1999   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MozambiqueLast reported2003   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
NamibiaLast reported2000   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
NigerReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
NigeriaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
RéunionDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
RwandaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SenegalReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SeychellesDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SomaliaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
South AfricaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SudanReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SwazilandLast reported2001   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
TanzaniaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
TogoReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
TunisiaLast reported1999   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
UgandaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ZambiaReported present or known to be present Native  OIE, 2004g; OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ZimbabweReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 

 

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Host Animals

Animal name Context 
Bos grunniens (yaks) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Bos indicus (zebu) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Bos mutus (yaks, wild) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Bos taurus (cattle) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Bubalus bubalis (buffalo) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Capra hircus (goats) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Lama glama (llamas) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Lama pacos (alpacas) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Ovis aries (sheep) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Ruminantia Domesticated host, Wild host 
Sus scrofa (pigs) Domesticated host, Wild host 

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Systems Affected

Blood and Circulatory System - Pigs
Digestive - Pigs
Skin - Pigs

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Epidemiology

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious of animal diseases. Cattle are the most susceptible of the domesticated species to FMDV, as little as 10 tissue culture infectious doses are required to establish infection by inhalation. Cattle are therefore the principal indicators of the disease. Pigs are important amplifiers because their capacity to excrete large quantities of virus (Sellers et al., 1971). Sheep are maintenance hosts since they can display very slight symptoms (Sellers et al., 1971).

The most common method of spread is by the movement of infected animals; however, FMD may also spread in products from infected animals (such as milk, semen and meat), by movement of people, vehicles or articles contaminated with virus from infected animals; or as an aerosol. The FMD virus is very susceptible to acid (pH 9) conditions, and the lactic acid in the meat of slaughtered animals that has been kept for 24 h at 4ºC to 'set' will kill the virus; but the virus will survive in the bone marrow and glands in which the pH remains close to neutral. With some strains the main means of transmission is as an aerosol, and infected animals, particularly pigs, can produce large amounts of virus in their breath, depending on the strain of virus - pigs may produce up to log10 8.6 TCID50 (tissue culture infectious doses) per day, and cattle and sheep, up to log10 5.2 TCID50 per day. Under the right weather conditions, an aerosol of infectious virus can spread as a discrete plume over considerable distances, having been recorded to have spread 250 km from France to southern England in 1981 (these outbreaks were quickly eliminated); over land, the plume is more likely to be disrupted, and spread in excess of 16 km is unlikely. The distance over which the virus can travel by the airborne route varies with virus strain and host species (Alexandersen and Donaldson, 2002). Cattle and sheep may be infected with as little as 20 TCID50 of virus by the respiratory route, while pigs require greater amounts (800 TCID50, but depends on strain of virus). All species are considerably less susceptible to infection by the oral route. FMD virus will quickly die at relative humidity below 60% RH, and is very susceptible to drying in the environment. At neutral pH and moist conditions, the virus can persist for a few weeks in contaminated premises or pasture (Donaldson, 1979; Donaldson, 1987).

FMDV infection of susceptible animals in the field occurs primarily through the upper respiratory tract by inhalation of airborne virus from an infected animal (Burrows et al., 1981; Donaldson et al., 1989; Eskildsen, 1969). Aerosol transmission usually occurs with animals in close proximity. However, there is circumstantial evidence that animals may be infected from several yards to many miles downwind from a source of infection (Hyslop, 1965; Sangar, 1979). The oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluid, respiratory aerosols, saliva, vaginal and tracheal mucus, faeces, milk, and semen of infected animals may contain virus before appearance of clinical signs and lesions of the disease. Whilst lesions are present, FMDV is also present in the epithelium and vesicular fluids. Therefore, the disease may spread rapidly by movement of infected animals. Pigs do not become carriers. Other species after clinical signs may become persistently infected for variable periods (between 6 and 36 months in cattle, 4-9 months in sheep and goats and in the African Buffalo for at least 5 years) (Burrows et al., 1981, 1966; Prato-Murphy, 1994; Straver et al., 1970; Terpstra et al., 1990; Bekkum et al., 1960). Reports of field outbreaks indicate that convalescent cattle may transmit the disease when introduced into a FMD-free herd (Sangar, 1979). The role of carrier animals in the transmission has never been demonstrated experimentally in cattle and sheep. There is only one study that shows transmission of virus from carrier buffaloes to cattle under field conditions (Dawe et al., 1994; Hedger et al., 1985).

In many areas reservoir hosts are important factors in the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease. The African buffalo maintains the SAT serotype (in particular SAT1 and 3) in those countries which have a wild buffalo population, and there are many examples of transmission direct to cattle (Bastos et al., 1999) or transmission to impala, which then infect cattle (Bastos et al., 2000). Very little is known about the involvement of Indian buffalo in the epidemiology of FMD, although they will develop clinical disease and transmit infection to cattle. Other wild ruminants, such as deer, are susceptible to FMD, but usually as the recipient of FMD virus from cattle; there are no examples of FMD being maintained in a wild ruminant population other than in African buffalo.

Indirect transmission of infection is important because the virus can retain infectivity for a considerable time in the environment (Cottral 1969). The virus is inactivated in the meat of carcasses that undergo the normal post-slaughter acidification processes, but it persists for a very long time in frozen or chilled lymph nodes, bone marrow and residual blood clots. It also retains infectivity in uncooked, salted and cured meats, and unpasteurized milks (Cottral, 1969).

Higher titres of virus are required in all species to cause disease by ingestion. The virus may also gain entrance and establish the initial infection through abrasions in the mucous membranes or skin (Sellers, 1971; Sutmoller, 1976). Infection is also possible through the skin from a local trauma or abrasions.

Transmission is possible through artificial insemination, and contaminated embryos. However, embryo transplantation using properly collected and washed embryos does not constitute a risk (Sutmoller, 1976).

Transmission via arthropod or parasite vectors is possible, but is not considered important.

Generally, all susceptible animals in an exposed herd develop infection but under some circumstances, the incidence of disease is considerably less than 100%. Young animals are usually more susceptible than adults, unless protected by maternal antibodies arising from previous infection or vaccination. The climate may affect the spread of the virus. Hot, dry weather may slow the spread of epidemics.

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Diagnosis

Clinical signs and lesions

In pigs, clinical signs include fever, inappetance and reluctance to move. Vesicles may occur, particularly on the feet (coronets, interdigital skin) and may cause lameness. They may lead to separation of the keratinized layers of the hoof from the corium. Also, vesicles can develop on the snout and, in a lower frequency, on the tongue. Sows often develop vesicles on their teats. Pregnant sows may abort. The mortality may be high in sucking piglets.

FMD is indistinguishable from other vesicular viral diseases (vesicular stomatitis, swine vesicular disease, vesicular exanthema) and should be confirmed or excluded using suitable tests. Also, differential diagnoses should include rinderpest, mucosal disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bluetongue, bovine mamillitis and bovine papular stomatitis.

Specimens required

The best samples are epithelium of the vesicles from the mouth or foot, and vesicular fluid from the unruptured vesicles. Epithelium samples of between 1 and 2 cm² are satisfactory. Epithelial samples should be placed in a transport medium that maintains a pH 7.2-7.4 and is kept cool.

From ruminants, oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid (OPF) should be collected using a probang cup. The OPF should be diluted with buffer phosphate.

Laboratory diagnosis

FMD virus causes an acute disease in over 70 species of cloven-hoofed animals but primarily it is the disease in farmed livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and buffalo that requires laboratory diagnosis and confirmation. The disease is associated with the development of vesicles on epithelial surfaces of the mouth and feet and infection also generates a transient viraemia in infected animals that typically lasts for approximately five days (Alexandersen et al., 2003).

Tests that exploit these clinical windows in an infected animal form the basis of laboratory approaches currently used to diagnose FMD. These assays aim to detect FMDV in epithelium and fluid from vesicles, as well as in blood and swabs from mucosal surfaces (oral and nasal swabs). In addition, FMDV-specific antibody responses in exposed animals can be detected using serological assays.

Most commonly diagnosis is by observation of clinical signs (see Disease Course) and the subsequent isolation of live virus on tissue culture coupled with the identification of viral antigen by ELISA or viral nucleic acid by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Increase of specific antibody may also be used to indicate recovery from infection. Amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences using RT-PCR is now widely used for the laboratory detection of FMDV. These molecular assays are suitable for the diverse range of different samples that might be submitted for laboratory investigation (tissues, blood, swabs, oesophageal or pharyngeal (OP) scrapings, faecal samples and milk). Over the past 15 years, improvements have been made to RT-PCR protocols used for the detection of FMDV and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays have now largely replaced agarose gel based assay formats. These more rapid fluorescence-based approaches are highly sensitive enabling simultaneous amplification and quantification of FMDV specific nucleic acid sequences. In addition to enhanced sensitivity, the benefits of these closed-tube rRT-PCR assays over conventional endpoint detection methods include a reduced risk of cross-contamination, their large dynamic range, an ability to be scaled up for high-throughput applications and the potential for accurate target quantification. Several assays have been developed to detect FMDV that use 5'-nuclease assay (TaqMan®) system to detect PCR amplicons (Callahan et al., 2002; Oem et al., 2005; Reid et al., 2002). Other formats exploited for FMDV-specific rRT-PCR assays include the use of modified minor groove binder (MGB) probes (McKillen et al., 2011; Moniwa et al., 2007), hybridisation probes (Moonen et al., 2003), Primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET: Rasmussen et al., 2003) and RT-linear-after-the-exponential PCR (LATE PCR: Reid et al., 2010). In order to minimise human operator errors and increase assay throughput, these assays can be automated using robots for nucleic acid extraction (Moonen et al., 2003). Together with the implementation of quality control systems, these improvements have increased the acceptance of the rRT-PCR assays for routine diagnostic purposes.

More recently, lateral-flow devices (LFDs, also referred to as immuno-chromatographic strip tests or point of care tests) have been developed for the detection of FMD viral antigen. These simple-to-use and rapid tests utilise FMDV specific antibody reagents (normally monoclonal antibodies) in a format similar to the sandwich capture ELISA used for laboratory diagnosis. Positive test signal is generated by the diffusion of coloured, antibody-coated latex beads or colloidal gold particles through a membrane towards an immobilising band of trapping antibody. An LFD has been developed for the detection of all seven FMDV serotypes which uses a pan-serotypic monoclonal antibody (Ferris et al., 2009). In addition, sample preparation in field conditions can be achieved using simple disposable tissue homogenizers for preparing epithelial suspensions. In terms of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, the overall performance of this LFD is similar to laboratory-based antigen ELISA, although the diagnostic sensitivity of the current test is lower for SAT 2 field strains (Ferris et al., 2009) and a separate Sat 2 LFD has been developed for this reason.

Epithelium from ruptured lesions is the most suitable sample to collect for diagnosis. This should be placed in 50% PBS-Glycerol plus antibiotics at neutral pH, and kept at 4°C or -20°C until submission to a laboratory capable of carrying out FMD diagnosis. This is usually the national laboratory, but samples may also be sent to the World Reference Laboratory for FMD at the Pirbright Institute (formerly The Institute for Animal health) Pirbright, UK. If submitting to the World Reference Laboratory, it is necessary to first contact for submission requirements (www.pirbright.ac.uk, Fax 00441483232621). The sample is prepared at the laboratory as a 10% suspension and inoculated onto a susceptible cell culture.

Primary bovine thyroid cells are the most sensitive indicator of virus presence, but lamb kidney may also be used. If the sample is fresh, and there are likely to be high levels of viral antigen present, the suspension may be used directly in an ELISA, which will also indicate the serotype. Virus recovered from tissue culture should also be typed by ELISA. Once isolated, the virus can be sequenced, if not locally, then at the World Reference Laboratory, to provide epidemiological data as to its likely origin, by comparison with other sequences in the Reference Laboratory database. It can also be used to help identify the most relevant vaccine strain to help control the outbreak by antigenic comparisons with existing vaccine strains (Kitching et al., 1989).

Serology for FMD virus antibodies is by ELISA (liquid phase blocking) (Hamblin et al., 1987), solid phase competition ELISA (Paiba et al., 2004) and non structural protein (NSP) antibody ELISA. The 'gold standard' test is still considered to be the virus neutralisation test (VNT), however, this test requires the use of tissue culture facilities and the handling of live FMD virus which may not be possible in some laboratories. The ELISA's can give false positives which should be confirmed by VNT. The LPB and SPC ELISA's and VNT are serotype specific, but several ELISAs for detecting antibodies to the NSP's such as 3ABC have been developed which are non-serotype specific and some are now commercially available The NSP antibody tests do have the advantage of allowing the distinction of antibodies produced following infection and those induced by vaccination (Clavijo et al., 2004) and can be used for surveillance and demonstration of disease freedom. FMD vaccines are inactivated and, although they may contain some non-structural protein (particularly 3D), the antibody response to these proteins is much lower than following an infection.

The NSP tests are recommended by the OIE to support declaration of freedom from infection after emergency vaccination. Extensive validation of NSP tests has been carried out and demonstrates acceptable accuracy (for example Nanni et al., 2005; Sørensen et al., 2005; Brocchi et al., 2006); but the existing tests are still considered insufficiently sensitive and specific under field conditions to be used on an individual animal basis, and should be applied at herd level only (Bronsvoort et al., 2004; Brocchi et al., 2006).

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Disease Course

The course of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is acute. The incubation period is variable and depends mainly on the strain and doses of virus, route of entry, and level of immunity. It may oscillate between 2-3 days and 10-14 days (Salt 1993; Sellers 1969).

The respiratory system is the usual primary site of FMDV infection (Burrows 1981). Early sites of FMDV replication are in the glandular cells of the mucous membrane and associated lymphoid tissues. Within 2-4 h, replicating virus can be detected in the upper respiratory tract secretions.

Following the primary virus replication, FMDV is disseminated to secondary sites that include the epithelial tissues in and around the mouth and feet, mammary glands, glandular organs and other lymphoid nodes, and cardiac muscle. This first stage of the infection is subclinical and large amounts of FMDV are shed in secretions and other body fluids.

After between 72 and 96 h the fever begins. As a result of the infection, the cells of the stratum spinosum of the epithelium vacuolate, swell and burst (Bekkum, 1959; Yilma, 1980). The intercellular fluid coalesces into vesicles. Affected animals show inappetance, lameness and reluctance to move, sudden death due to cardiac failure is common in piglets.

At 5 days post-infection (dpi), the vesicles in the coronets may extend round the top of the hoof so that the horn becomes separate. Vesicles can also appear in lips, tongue and teats. Pregnant sows may abort. Rising serum antibody titre coincides with a precipitous reduction in the titre of virus shed in external body fluids. Resolution is usually complete by 14 dpi. The lesions heal, although secondary bacterial infection can complicate these lesions.

Most excretion of the virus ceases about 4-6 days after the appearance of vesicles. The virus has been detected in the milk and semen of experimentally infected cattle for 23 and 56 days, respectively.

After clinical recovery, up to 60% of ruminant animals may become persistently infected. This persistent infection is established in the pharyngeal and cranial oesophageal tissues. The duration of the carrier state varies with, among other factors, species of animal affected, and strain of virus. The maximum reported carrier periods for different species are in cattle 2.5 years, sheep and goats for up to 9 months, African buffaloes, 5 years or more (Prato Murphy et al., 1994; Salt, 1993). Pigs do not become carriers.

The virus can be recovered intermittently from such animals by oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) probang collections. The quantity and frequency of virus that can be collected decreases progressively with time.

Vaccinated animals may become infected. Although they are fully protected against clinical disease, they may develop carrier state (Prato Murphy et al., 1994; Salt, 1993).

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Disease Treatment Table

DrugDosage, administration and withdrawal timesLife stagesAdverse affectsDrug resistanceType
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine Seek veterinary advice and information from product manufacturer. Use of vaccine may cause international trade restrictions on products. Only oil adjuvanted vaccines should be used in pigs.  All Stages  No Vaccine 

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Disease Treatment

In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in treatment as the huge cost of stamping out the disease has become much more expensive where the disease is out of control.

T-705 (favipiravir) is an experimental anti-FMDV drug that has been tested in pigs in Japan with activity and side-effects not fully understood at present (Furuta et al., 2009).

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Vaccines

VaccineDosage, Administration and Withdrawal TimesLife StagesAdverse Affects
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine Seek veterinary advice and information from product manufacturer. Use of vaccine may cause international trade restrictions on products. Only oil adjuvanted vaccines should be used in pigs.    

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Prevention and Control

Animals in endemic areas may be given some protection with prophylactic vaccination. The seven serotypes of FMD virus are immunologically distinct, and recovery from infection or vaccination with one serotype does not provide protection against the other six. In addition, within each serotype there are a large number of strains representing a spectrum of antigenic characteristics. It is therefore necessary to antigenically match the outbreak strain with a suitable vaccine strain, or even produce a new vaccine strain. Protection with even a closely matched vaccine will only last for approximately 6 months, and in endemic situations it is usually necessary to vaccinate cattle three times yearly, and sheep twice-yearly. Calves from vaccinated cows are protected for up to 4 months by colostral antibody, although this may be for a shorter time depending on the frequency of vaccination. The dose of vaccine varies according to the manufacturer and whether they are able to concentrate the antigen. There are no live vaccines officially in use worldwide. Adjuvant for ruminant FMD vaccines can be either aluminium hydroxide plus saponin or oil; for pigs it must be oil, either as a single or double emulsion. Other control measures should also be used to control outbreaks such as quarantine, disinfection and movement restrictions.

Countries usually free of FMD generally control outbreaks by slaughtering all infected and in-contact animals, and implementing strict movement controls and other zoosanitary measures ('stamping out'). More extensive slaughter policies, including culling of animals on adjacent premises and small ruminants and pigs within 3 km of infected premises, were used during the UK epidemic in 2001. The effectiveness of such pre-emptive slaughter in controlling the spread of infection is controversial. It is important to note that vaccination is now expected to be considered as part of any response to an FMD outbreak in a free country and that those countries which hold FMD antigen banks should be prepared with practical contingency plans for deployment of vaccination should the situation arise.

Most FMD-free countries maintain the option to vaccinate by participating in FMD antigen banks, which they would take advantage of should the slaughter policy prove ineffective. There is still some reluctance to use vaccine because of the possibility that some of the vaccinated cattle that contacted live field virus would become carriers. However, recent scientific advances should allow a more rapid return to FMD-free status. This could be achieved through a combined approach involving improved vaccines and better use of rapid diagnostic tests to detect early infection and persistent infection accurately and competent data management. This is reflected by the increased priority given to vaccination in current FMD contingency plans, such as those of the European Union countries (Laddomada, 2003).

The use of vaccine delays the re-establishment of freedom from FMD status, as it affects international trade (Kitching et al., 1998; Barteling and Vreeswijk, 1991; Kitching, 1992; Kitching and Salt, 1995; Woolhouse et al. 1996; OIE, 1998). This restriction, however, is now less onerous: the OIE reduced the time period for regaining FMD-free status following emergency vaccination from the original 12 to 6 months, provided that non-structural proteins (NSP) tests are used to document that the remaining vaccinated population is free of infection.

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References

African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/pan-african-animal-health-yearbook

Alexandersen S, Donaldson AI, 2002. Further studies to quantify the dose of natural aerosols of foot-and-mouth disease virus for pigs. Epidemiology and Infection, 128(2):313-323; 43 ref.

Alexandersen S, Quan M, Murphy C, Knight J, Zhang Z, 2003. Studies of quantitative parameters of virus excretion and transmission in pigs and cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 129(4):268-282.

Bachrach HL, 1968. Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Ann. Rev. Microbiology, 22:201-244.

Barteling SJ, Vreeswijk J, 1991. Developments in foot-and-mouth disease vaccines. Vaccine, 9(2):75-88; 191 ref.

Bastos ADS, Bertschinger HJ, Cordel C, Vuuren Cde WJvan, Keet D, Bengis RG, Grobler DG, Thomson GR, 1999. Possibility of sexual transmission of foot-and-mouth disease from African buffalo to cattle. Veterinary Record, 145(3):77-79; 16 ref.

Bastos ADS, Boshoff CI, Keet DF, Bengis RG, Thomson GR, 2000. Natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus between African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and impala (Aepyceros melampus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Epidemiology and Infection, 124 (3):591-598.

Bekkum JG van, Straver PJ, Bool P, Frenkel S, 1959. Further information on the persistence of infective FMDV. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneekunde, 84:1159-1164.

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Links to Websites

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OIE Reference Experts and Laboratories

(http://www.oie.int, accessed 5 June 2013)

Dr Eduardo Maradei
Laboratorio de Fiebre Aftosa de la Dirección de Laboratorios y Control Técnico
Av. Sir. Alexander Fleming 1653
Martínez (1640)
Buenos Aires
ARGENTINA
Tel: +54-11 48.36.19.95 Fax: +54-11 48.36.19.95
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Onkabetse George Matlho
Botswana Vaccine Institute
Department of Animal Health and Production
Broadhurst Industrial Site
Lejara Road
Private Bag 0031
Gaborone
BOTSWANA
Tel: +267 391 27 11 Fax: +267 395 67 98
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Rossana Allende
PANAFTOSA
Av. President Kennedy 7778
25040-000 Duque de Caxias
Rio de Janeiro
BRASIL
Tel: +55-21 36.61.90.64 Fax: +55-21 36.61.90.01
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Xiangtao Liu
Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute
CAAS
National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory
Xujiaping No.1, Yanchangpu
Lanzhou, Gansu province 730046
CHINA (PEOPLE'S REP. OF)
Tel: +86-931 834.25.85 Fax: +86-931 834.09.77
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Valery Zakharov
Federal Governmental Institute
Centre for Animal Health (FGI-ARRIAH)
600900 Yur'evets
Vladimir
RUSSIA
Tel: +7-4922 26 06 14 Fax: +7-4922 26 38 77
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Rahana Dwarka
Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
Transboundary Animal Diseases Programme
Private Bag X05
Onderstepoort 0110
SOUTH AFRICA
Tel: +27-12 529.95.85 Fax: +27-12 529.95.43
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Wilai Linchongsubongkoch
National Institute of Animal Health
Department of Livestock Development
Pakchong
Nakhonratchasima 30130
THAILAND
Tel: +66 44 27.91.12 Fax: +66 44 31.48.89
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Jef Hammond
Institute for Animal Health
Ash Road, Pirbright
Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel: +44-1483 23.12.11 Fax: +44-1483 23.26.21
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Consuelo Carrillo
National Veterinary Services Laboratories
USDA-APHIS-VS
Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
Plum Island Animal Disease Center
P.O. Box 848
Greenport, NY 11944
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Tel: +1-631 323.32.56 Fax: +1-631 323.33.66
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Images


 Vesicles on snout of a pig (day 1). © Reproduced with permission of DEFRAVesicles on snout of a pig (day 1). © Reproduced with permission of DEFRA

 Pigs with sore feet: note the position of the feet. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection ServicePigs with sore feet: note the position of the feet. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service
  Unruptured vesicle on the snout and blanching of the coronary bands. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection ServiceUnruptured vesicle on the snout and blanching of the coronary bands. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service   	Oral lesions in the pig are usually areas of epithelial necrosis. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service Oral lesions in the pig are usually areas of epithelial necrosis. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service
 Vesiculation and necrosis of the coronary band in a pig. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection ServiceVesiculation and necrosis of the coronary band in a pig. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service 

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Date of report: 03/06/2013

© CAB International 2013. Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.