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Selected content from the Animal Health and Production Compendium (© CAB International 2013). Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.

Whilst this information is provided by experts, we advise that users seek veterinary advice where appropriate and check OIE manuals for recent changes to regulations, diagnostic tests, vaccines and treatments.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


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Identity    Pathogen/s    Overview    Distribution    Distribution Map for Africa    Distribution Table for Africa    Hosts/Species Affected    Host Animals    Systems Affected     References    Links to Websites

 

 Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
leishmaniosis
International Common Names
English
cutaneous leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis in horses and sheep, cutaneous leishmaniasis, leishmaniosis, in horses and sheep, leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis

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 Pathogen/s

Leishmania

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Overview

Leishmaniosis can affect the skin, muco-cutaneous zone and visceral system. Several species of Leishmania exist of which four main groups are recognised: L.donovani; L,tropica; L.mexicana; and L.braziliensis.

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

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Distribution

For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.

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Distribution Map for Africa

Distribution Map for AfricaDistribution Map for Africa

present, no further details = Present, no further details    widespread = Widespread    localised = Localised
confined and subject to quarantine = Confined and subject to quarantine    occasional or few reports = Occasional or few reports
evidence of pathogen = Evidence of pathogen    last reported = Last reported...    presence unconfirmed = Presence unconfirmed

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 Distribution Table for Africa

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further information for individual references may be available in the Animal Health and Production Compendium. A table for worldwide distribution can also be found in the Animal Health and Production Compendium.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes
AFRICA
AlgeriaPresent    OIE, 2012 
AngolaLast reported2007   OIE, 2012 
BeninDisease never reported    OIE, 2012 
BotswanaDisease never reported    OIE, 2012 
Burkina FasoNo information available    OIE, 2009 
BurundiDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
CameroonNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Cape VerdeDisease not reported    OIE, 2012 
Central African RepublicDisease not reported    OIE, 2012 
ChadNo information available    OIE, 2009 
CongoNo information available    OIE, 2009 
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Côte d'IvoireNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
DjiboutiDisease not reported    OIE, 2012 
EgyptNo information available    OIE, 2009 
EritreaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
Ethiopia     OIE, 2012Disease suspected
GabonDisease not reported    OIE, 2012 
GambiaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
GhanaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
GuineaDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
Guinea-BissauNo information available    OIE, 2009 
KenyaPresent    S. Muriuki, Africa, personal communication, 2012 
LesothoDisease never reported    OIE, 2012 
LibyaPresent, no further details    OIE, 2012 
MadagascarDisease never reported    OIE, 2009 
MalawiNo information available    OIE, 2009 
MaliDisease not reported    OIE, 2012 
MauritiusDisease never reported    OIE, 2012 
MoroccoDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
MozambiqueDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
NamibiaPresent, no further details    OIE, 2012 
NigeriaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
RéunionNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
RwandaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SenegalNo information available    OIE, 2009 
SeychellesDisease never reported    OIE, 2012 
Sierra LeoneDisease not reported    OIE, 2012 
SomaliaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
South AfricaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
SudanDisease not reported    OIE, 2009 
SwazilandDisease never reported    OIE, 2012 
TanzaniaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
TogoDisease not reported    OIE, 2012 
TunisiaPresent2011   OIE, 2012 
UgandaNo information available    OIE, 2009 
ZambiaDisease not reported    OIE, 2012 
ZimbabweDisease never reported    OIE, 2012 

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 Hosts/Species Affected

Sheep (Ovis aries), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and humans (Homo sapiens) can all be host organisms.

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Host Animals

Animal name Context 
Ovis aries (sheep)  

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Systems Affected

Skin - Small Ruminants

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References

African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/pan-african-animal-health-yearbook

Anjili CO, Ngichabe CK, Mbati PA, Lugalia RM, Wamwayi HM, Githure JI, 1998. Experimental infection of domestic sheep with culture-derived Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Veterinary Parasitology, 74(2/4):315-318.

Bailey MS, Lockwood DNJ, 2007. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinics in Dermatology, 25(2):203-211. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T5G-4N7YJVF-8&_user=10&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2007&_rdoc=8&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235002%232007%23999749997%23646213%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5002&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=12&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=4223ef28903105857bb22918bc067b2a

Baneth G, Koutinas AF, Solano-Gallego L, Bourdeau P, Ferrer L, 2008. Canine leishmaniosis - new concepts and insights on an expanding zoonosis: Part one. Trends in Parasitology, 24(7):324-330. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14714922

Bañuls AL, Hide M, Prugnolle F, 2007. Leishmania and the leishmaniases: a parasite genetic update and advances in taxonomy, epidemiology and pathogenicity in humans. In: Advances in Parasitology, 64 [ed. by Baker, J. R.\Muller, R.\Rollinson, D.]. London, UK: Elsevier Ltd, 1-109. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/bookseries/0065308X

Berman J, 2006. Visceral leishmaniasis in the New World & Africa. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 123(3):289-294. http://www.icmr.nic.in

Dantas-Torres F, 2007. The role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Veterinary Parasitology, 149(3/4):139-146. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

Gramiccia M, Gradoni L, 2005. The current status of zoonotic leishmaniases and approaches to disease control. International Journal for Parasitology, 35(11/12):1169-1180.

Miró G, Cardoso L, Pennisi MG, Oliva G, Baneth G, 2008. Canine leishmaniosis - new concepts and insights on an expanding zoonosis: part two. Trends in Parasitology, 24(8):371-377. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14714922

Morsy TA, Al-Dakhil MA, El-Bahrawy AFA, 1999. Natural Leishmania infection in sand cats captured in Riyadh district, Saudi Arabia. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 29(1):69-74.

Mukhtar MM, Sharief AH, El-Saffi SH, Harith AE, Higazzi TB, Adam AM, Abdalla HS, 2000. Detection of antibodies to Leishmania donovani in animals in a kala-azar endemic region in eastern Sudan: a preliminary report. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 94(1):33-36.

Mutinga MJ, Kihara SM, Lohding A, Mutero CM, Ngatia TA, Karanu F, 1989. Leishmaniasis in Kenya: description of leishmaniasis of a domestic goat from Transmara, Narok District, Kenya. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 40(2):91-96.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

Quinnell RJ, Courtenay O, 2009. Transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitology, 136(14):1915-1934. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par

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Links to Websites

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Date of report: 03/06/2013

© CAB International 2013. Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.