Current Programmes and Projects

AU-IBAR Current Publications

Print

Pasteurellosis

on .

au-ibar logo          cabi logo

Selected content from the Animal Health and Production Compendium (© CAB International 2013). Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.

Whilst this information is provided by experts, we advise that users seek veterinary advice where appropriate and check OIE manuals for recent changes to regulations, diagnostic tests, vaccines and treatments.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


TOP

Identity    Pathogen/s    Overview    Distribution    Distribution Map for Africa    Distribution Table for Africa    Hosts/Species Affected    Host Animals    Systems Affected    Epidemiology    Impact: Economic    Zoonoses and Food Safety    Pathology     Diagnosis    Disease Course    Disease Treatment Table    Disease Treatment    Vaccines    Prevention and Control    References    Links to Websites    Images

 

 Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
pasteurellosis
International Common Names
English acronym
BRD
FC
English
atrophic rhinitis, avian cholera, barbone, bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis, bovine respiratory disease, calf pneumonia, comb necrosis in layer breeder chickens, encephalitis, enzootic calf pneumonia, ewe mastitis, fowl cholera, fowl, avian, cholera, pasteurella multocida, gallinarum, in birds, haemorrhagic septicaemia, haemorrhagic septicemia, mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia, shipping fever, pasteurellosis, mannheimia haemolytica-like organism associated with diarrhea in swine, Mannheimia mastitis, mannheimia mastitis in goats, mannheimia mastitis in sheep, Mannheimia pleuritis, Mannheimia pneumonia, mannheimia pneumonia, shipping fever, pasteurellosis, mannheimia, pasteurella mastitis in cattle, mannheimia, pasteurella pneumonia of sheep and goats, mannheimia, pasteurella pneumonia, septicemia, of sheep and goats, mannheimiosis, mastitis, mastitis in ewes due to miscellaneous bacteria, necrotizing pleuropneumonia in pigs, otitis media, externa, interna, middle and inner ear infections, Pasteurella haemolytica infections, Pasteurella mastitis, Pasteurella pleuritis, pasteurella, mannheimia, pneumonia, pleuritis, in swine, pasteurellosis in cattle, pasteurellosis of sheep and goats, pasteurellosis of swine, pneumonic pasteurellosis, septicemia of lambs or kids, tick pyemia, septicemic pasteurellosis, septicemic pasteurellosis of cattle, septicemic pasteurellosis of sheep, septicemic pasteurellosis of swine, shipping fever, shipping fever pneumonia, stockyard pneumonia, summer mastitis, summer mastitis in cattle, systemic pasteurellosis, transit fever
French
mannheimiose

top


 

 Pathogen/s

Pasteurella trehalosi

top


 

Overview

Mannheimia haemolytica (from Greek haima - blood, lyt – adverb form of verb lyo - dissolve and adjectival suffix – ikos latinized in – ica) is a Gram-negative bacterium which produces a weak haemolytic phenotype on sheep blood agar plates. This microorganism corresponds with Pasteurella haemolytica biogroup 1 that, in 1999, was renamed as Mannheimia (in tribute to Walter Mannheim, a German microbiologist that studied the taxonomy of the family Pasteurellaceae) (Angen et al., 1999).

M. haemolytica is an important cause of bacterial respiratory mortality in cattle, sheep and goats, moreover, it is responsible for mastitis in ewes and camels, and abortion in cattle. The bacteria also causes a rare respiratory disease in pigs associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and it has been isolated from some wild and domesticated birds (Odugbo et al., 2004, Blackall et al., 2002, Christensen et al., 2003, Dewani et al., 2002, Frank, 1998, Martino, 2000, Oladele et al., 1999).

Healthy animals can carry M. haemolytica without developing clinical signs. However, when cattle (particularly younger animals) are stressed, as in transportation from suckler herds to feedlots, the animals can become infected with respiratory viruses such as bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenzavirus 3, or bovine viral diarrhoea virus. The viruses can damage the upper respiratory tract lining, allowing M. haemolytica, which normally lies dormant in the nasal passages, to infect. The bacteria is inhaled into the lower respiratory tract where it causes great damage. Opportunistic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus somnus or Actinomyces pyogenes then take advantage of the damage done to the respiratory tissue. The interaction between the various pathogens to cause respiratory disease is often referred to as bovine respiratory disease complex.

Parti M. haemolytica is the principle microorganism responsible for bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis or mannheimiosis (BPM), also known as shipping fever. This respiratory disease is an economically significant disease in cattle, accounting for about 30% of the total cattle death in the world, and is associated with an annual economic loss of over US $1 billion only in North America (Frank, 1998).

There are several pathogenicity factors associated with M. haemolytica (fimbriae, capsule, lipopolysacharride, leukotoxin, etc.) and there are several clinical signs that it causes in domestic and wild animals: fever, cough, nasal discharge, weight loss, etc. (Alley, 2002; Kanwar et al., 1998; Alhendi, 2000; Ali and Youssef, 2003; Frank, 1998; Catry et al., 2002).

Antimicrobials such as tylmicosin, danofloxacin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are used in the treatment of the bacterium (Aslan et al., 2002, Christodoulopoulos et al., 2002, Frank et al., 2002, Hurd, 1999) and prevention of respiratory disease by vaccination is widespread (Auad et al., 2001; Choe et al., 2000; Cusack, 2004).

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID Interface on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

top


 

Distribution

The geographical distribution of Mannheimia haemolytica is worldwide. However, the microorganism is reported most frequently in Asia and in the countries where sheep or goat breeding is widespread, such as in Africa, USA and Canada, where cattle breeding for both beef and dairy cattle is common. In Europe, pasteurellosis or mannheimiosis is also widespread involves many countries where sheep and cattle are present, such as the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and France (Topolko and Benic, 1997; Tefera and Smola, 2002a,b; Angen et al., 2002; Thomas et al., 2001; Ewers et al., 2004; Fels et al., 2002; Catana et al., 1997; Lyakh and Androsik, 1996; Harwood, 2003).

During 2011, 13 countries reported outbreaks of pasteurellosis to the AU-IBAR, comprising a total of 1,016 outbreaks, 14,014 cases and 3,284 deaths (see table below) compared to 2010 where 23 countries reported the diseases (PAHYB 2011). Similar to the previous year, Ethiopia recorded the highest number of outbreaks (570) followed by Niger (184) and Benin (77). Ethiopia reported also the highest number of deaths (1,633), followed by Niger (585) and Benin (269).

Countries reporting pasteurellosis to AU-IBAR 2011:

CountryOutbreaksCasesDeathsSlaughteredDestroyed
Benin7724442691830
Burkina Faso406098500
Chad14670248144
Ethiopia57074681633268 
Gambia11232113250
Guinea Conakry19158562015
Madagascar75314 NS NS
Namibia13300
Niger1841377585 NS NS
Senegal1447712910
Somalia6441310600
Sudan4702630
Zambia114017 NS NS
Total (13)101614,014328451419

 NS=Not specified

 top


 

Distribution Map for Africa

Distribution Map for AfricaDistribution Map for Africa

present, no further details = Present, no further details    widespread = Widespread    localised = Localised
confined and subject to quarantine = Confined and subject to quarantine    occasional or few reports = Occasional or few reports
evidence of pathogen = Evidence of pathogen    last reported = Last reported...    presence unconfirmed = Presence unconfirmed

top


 

 Distribution Table for Africa

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further information for individual references may be available in the Animal Health and Production Compendium. A table for worldwide distribution can also be found in the Animal Health and Production Compendium.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes
AFRICA
AlgeriaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
AngolaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
BeninNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
BotswanaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Burkina FasoReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
BurundiNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
CameroonReported present or known to be present Native  Martrenchar et al., 1995; OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Cape VerdeNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Central African RepublicNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ChadNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
DjiboutiDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
EgyptLast reported1970Native  Seddek, 2002; Ali & Youssef, 2003; OIE Handistatus, 2005 
EritreaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
EthiopiaReported present or known to be present Native  Woubit et al., 2001; Sisay & Zerihun, 2003; OIE Handistatus, 2005 
GhanaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
GuineaDisease never reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Guinea-BissauNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
KenyaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
LibyaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MadagascarReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MalawiNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MaliReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MauritiusDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MoroccoNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
MozambiqueReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
NamibiaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
NigerReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
NigeriaReported present or known to be present Native  Odugbo et al., 2004; OIE Handistatus, 2005 
RéunionNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
RwandaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
Sao Tome and Principe     OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SenegalNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SeychellesDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SomaliaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
South AfricaReported present or known to be present Native  Odendaal & Henton, 1995; OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SudanLast reported2001   OIE Handistatus, 2005 
SwazilandNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
TanzaniaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
TogoNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
TunisiaReported present or known to be present    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
UgandaDisease not reported    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ZambiaNo information available    OIE Handistatus, 2005 
ZimbabweNo information available Native  Dziva & Mohan, 2000; OIE Handistatus, 2005 

 

 top


 

 Hosts/Species Affected

In cattle, Mannheimia haemolytica is responsible for a severe respiratory syndrome, which is often a consequence of several stressors such as transportation ('shipping fever' or 'shipping fever pneumonia'), the gathering of animals coming from different geographical areas, adverse climatic conditions (excessive cold, heat, rain, or wind) or pronounced food changes (Euzeby, 1999; Taylor, 1998; Martin et al., 1998; Martino, 2000; Frank, 1998). Also respiratory infections due to viruses or Mycoplasma are predisposing factors because they may enhance the localized multiplication of M. haemolytica and they act by altering the mechanisms of defence of the lower respiratory tract, including the lungs.

In sheep and goats there are several factors that predispose to respiratory diseases, usually in adult animals: climatic changes, overcrowding, lack of adequate shelters, transport, viral infections, mycoplasmosis, bordetellosis, pasteurellosis due to Pasteurella multocida, anaplasmosis, trypanosomiasis (in Africa), nutrient deficiencies (especially of copper). Infections due to M. haemolytica, generally, are observed all year round, even if, they are often observed at the end of spring and at the beginning of summer (this form is also known as 'summer pneumonia'), or during colder seasons in some African countries (Euzeby, 1999; Sisay and Zerihun, 2003; Berry, 1998; Dewani et al., 2002; Dziva and Mohan, 2000).

In American bison, M. haemolytica is associated with disease in domestic livestock, but it is a potential pathogen, particularly in animals that become stressed by management practices commonly used with cattle, such as herding, crowding and shipping (Taylor et al., 1996).

M. haemolytica was isolated from ostriches with respiratory infection in Egypt (Ali and Youssef, 2003) and in some wild and domesticated birds (parrots, falcons, quails, peacocks, ostriches, pigeons, turkeys, guineafowl and ducks) in Nigeria. This last identification of M. haemolytica was only an occasional isolation during an epidemiological survey, but the bacteria has been reported in adult turkeys (Birbir et al., 1995; Christensen et al., 2003; Oladele et al., 1999; Ibrahim et al., 2000).

In camels, M. haemolytica is responsible of mastitis and respiratory diseases (Al Rawashdeh et al., 2000; Alhendi, 2000; Bekele and Molla, 2001).

M. haemolytica was reported to induce pericarditis in a jaguar (Kim et al., 2001a), but in a mixed infection with heartworm.

Isolation of M. haemolytica has been reported from sea turtles found on beaches in Italy (Zizzo et al., 2003).

Experimental pasteurellosis has been induced in rabbits (Heng et al., 1996) and it is possible to reproduce the pulmonary infection in laboratory mice, particularly in scid/beige mice (Thorn et al., 2000); bronchopneumonia is induced with lesions similar to those that develop in the lungs of cattle infected with M. haemolytica.

top


 

Host Animals

Animal name Context 
Bos grunniens (yaks) Domesticated host 
Bos indicus (zebu) Domesticated host 
Bos mutus (yaks, wild) Domesticated host 
Bos taurus (cattle) Domesticated host 
Bubalus bubalis (buffalo) Domesticated host 
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel) Domesticated host 
Capra hircus (goats) Domesticated host 
Cervus elaphus (red deer) Domesticated host, Wild host 
Equus asinus (donkeys) Domesticated host 
Equus caballus (horses) Domesticated host 
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens) Domesticated host 
Lama glama (llamas) Domesticated host 
Lama pacos (alpacas) Domesticated host 
Meleagris Domesticated host 
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey) Domesticated host 
mules Domesticated host 
Mus musculus (mouse) Experimental settings 
Ovis aries (sheep) Domesticated host 
Panthera onca Wild host 
Struthio camelus (ostrich) Domesticated host 
Sus scrofa (pigs) Domesticated host 

 top


 

Systems Affected

Blood and Circulatory System - Large Ruminants
Blood and Circulatory System - Pigs
Blood and Circulatory System - Poultry
Blood and Circulatory System - Small Ruminants
Digestive - Pigs
Mammary Glands - Large Ruminants
Mammary Glands - Pigs
Mammary Glands - Small Ruminants
Multisystem - Large Ruminants
Multisystem - Pigs
Multisystem - Poultry
Multisystem - Small Ruminants
Respiratory - Large Ruminants
Respiratory - Pigs
Respiratory - Small Ruminants
Skin - Poultry

top


 

Epidemiology

Mannheimia haemolytica is a commensal of the nasopharynx of cattle and sheep but it can act as a primary pathogen in septicaemia of lambs or in bronchopneumonia of calves and cattle.

Many species carry M. haemolytica as a commensal in the nasopharynx and tonsils (cattle, sheep, goat, buffaloes, etc.) but only in a few species does M. haemolytica cause disease. Sheep and goats are most often affected, followed by cattle and buffaloes, in which it is often possible to observe diseases associated with stress of transportation (shipping fever), sometimes associated with Pasteurella multocida infections and viral agents (such as parainfluenza 3 virus). In other species, such as, camelids, wild and domesticated birds, etc., the bacteria is isolated less frequently and, generally, is associated with viral and mycoplasmal infections, or mixed infections with other bacteria (Kanwar et al., 1998; Mackie et al., 1995; Martin et al., 1998; Khan and Khan, 1997; Martrenchar et al., 1995; O'Connor et al., 2001; Oladele et al., 1999; Ward et al., 1999).

The main route of infection is direct transmission via nasal secretions or droplets, so it is important to ventilate the calf's environment adequately. Some recent epidemiology studies in several states of the USA have attempted to identify risk factors for morbidity and mortality both at the individual calf and herd levels. Approximately 40-80% of all diseases of North American cattle involve the respiratory system and bovine respiratory disease complex is the most important problem, involving three clinical syndromes, of which shipping fever and pneumonic pasteurellosis are due to M. haemolytica (Sivula et al., 1996).

In Africa, especially in Ethiopia, bronchopneumonia, mainly attributed to M. haemolytica, causes both morbidity (18.6%) and mortality (10.6%) in sheep and goats. In this environment the highest percentage of bacterial isolation was recorded from September to November (Sisay and Zerihun, 2003).

In experiments, the survival of M. haemolytica was 1 h on a wooden plank and 24 h in straw maintained at 20°C. Nevertheless, relative humidity and cold weather increase its survival, which can reach 48 h at 4°C, 3 days in milk or in water at 20 °C, 7 days in water at 4°C and 8 days in milk at 4°C (Euzeby, 1999).

top


 

Impact: Economic

In USA, pneumonia caused by M. haemolytica is the main cause of economical losses in the breeding of calves. The same condition is also observed in Europe (Fels, 2002). In addition, M. haemolytica is the second commonest agent causing mastitis in goats in Europe and is one of the main aetiological agents of this disease in USA.

Financial losses that result from calf pneumonia occur due to death loss, treatment cost and decreased lifetime productivity. Michigan dairy producers estimated that respiratory disease in calves cost them US $14.71 per calf/year (Kaneene and Hurd, 1990) while producers in California estimated that calf respiratory disease costs them US $9 per calf/year (Sischo et al., 1990). Recent data show that the economic loss is over US $1 billion in North America alone (Griffin, 1997).

A recent study in two dairies in Mexico (Pijoan and Aguilar, 2003) evaluated direct and indirect costs of losses due to pneumonia. Direct costs included fatalities, discards and treatment. Indirect costs included vaccination and preventive treatment. The range varied from US $52.78 per calf to US $24.72 per calf.

top


 

Zoonoses and Food Safety

Mannheimia haemolytica is not an important zoonotic agent, but the mass medication of livestock in its treatment increases the risk of unwanted drug residues in meat and milk intended for human consumption.

Heat treatment of milk (pasteurization or ultra high temperature treatment) allows elimination of M. haemolytica and assures milk safety. However, in the countries where milk is consumed fresh and the microorganism is widely spread, risk of infection could be high.

top


 

Pathology

In bovine mannheimiosis, the hallmark histopathological features of the disease is extensive infiltration of the airways and alveoli by neutrophils.

In the septicaemic form of bovine mannheimiosis, which is peracute, hepatosplenic-megaly, petechiae on mucous membranes, and oedema and haemorrhages at lymph nodes are observed. The acute form involves sero-haemorrhagic-fibrinous pleuritis with abundant pleural effusion, fibrinous bronchopneumonia with fibrinous or gelatinous exudate, and the parenchyma of lungs appears marbled because of concurrent necrosis and haemorrhages (Redondo et al., 1994; Suzuki et al., 1995; Taylor, 1998).

In the pathology of sheep lungs, lesions consist of large areas of pulmonary hepatization, oedema and hyperplasia of bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes. Septicaemia of lambs causes sero-haemorrhagic effusions, and haemorrhages in serosal membranes, epicardium and lungs, particularly in the peripheric lobes. The abomasal space and some intestinal tracts show a catharral-haemorrhagic inflammation. There is also obvious serofibrinous pleuritis and pericarditis.

In camels, the major postmortem lesions are hydrothorax, adhesion of the lung to the thorax, emphysema, hydropericardium and fibrinous pericarditis (Seddek, 2002).

top


 

Diagnosis

Clinical diagnosis

In calves, it is possible to observe general depression with fever (41°C) and substantial weight loss, cough, respiratory distress and nasal discharge; death follows 24-48 h after onset (Frank, 1998; Munish et al., 2003; Martino, 2000; Odendaal and Henton, 1995).

In sheep and goats, initially, moderate respiratory signs (cough, nasal discharge) are observed, then signs worsen to pneumonia with fever (40.6–42.6°C). Animals dead in a few hours or a dyspnoea is present (Odendaal et al., 1995, Sasani et al., 2002, Ozbey and Muz, 2004, Zaitoun, 2001).

In ovine mastitis it is possible observe a severe, usually unilateral, necrotizing inflammation of the mammary gland with other generic systemic signs (fever, anorexia, depression, inappetance). At the beginning, milk is clear and watery, then becomes yellowish, viscous and clotted (Dewani et al., 2002, Fthenakis, 1994).

In camels, the major clinical signs observed are fever of 40-41.5°C, depression, cough, loss of appetite and a watery nasal discharge that becomes purulent at a later stage. Finally, the camel becomes recumbent and extends its neck along the ground (El Jakee, 1998, Bekele, 1999).

Laboratory diagnosis

Tentative diagnosis is by clinical observation, but should be confirmed by pathogen isolation. Sampling methods include using nasal swabs (even though M. haemolytica can be commensal in the nasal cavity), tracheo-bronchial lavage or broncho-alveolar lavage, sampling the pulmonary parenchyma, blood, spleen, liver and lymph nodes. The bacteriological examination of milk allows differential diagnosis of mastitis due to M. haemolytica from mastitis with another aetiological agents.

The Cary-Blair medium, modified by the addition of horse blood serum, is the most effective medium for the transport of M. haemolytica strains (Tefera and Smola, 2002a).

Samples can be plated on various bacteriological media such as Columbia agar or blood agar with 5-10 % of bovine or sheep blood. The incubation is made in aerobic atmosphere or with an atmosphere enriched with CO2. After 24 h of incubation, the colonies are round and with a dimension of 1-2 mm. The presence of a haemolytic activity is variable and depends on the type of erythrocyte used for media (bovine blood is generally better).

The identification based on morphological and biochemical characteristics such as nitrate reduction, glucose fermentation, oxydase reaction, etc. Often the identification of serotypes is difficult because more than one serotype can be present in the sample.

It is possible to use the API System 20NEâ (BioMerièux, France). M. haemolytica strains can be identified using this miniaturized biochemical system. The ENTERORapid 24 kit (BioMerièux, France) is the fastest kit for the identification of the bacterial strains (within 4 to 8 h), with a correct identification rate at the species level (Tefera and Smola, 2002b).

Serotyping is done in the reference laboratory (Younan and Fodor, 1995; Christensen et al., 2003). Analysis of M. haemolytica strains and serotypes using several tecniques has shown that pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is more efficient than ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for differentiation of the bacterial strains (Chaslus et al., 1996; Kodjo et al., 1999).

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most recent tecnique used for identification of M. haemolytica from samples (Dutta et al., 2001, Katsuda et al., 2003).

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis is required from Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In fact, M. haemolytica is frequently mixed with P. multocida in shipping fever or in respiratory disease of calves. Differential diagnosis is based on the pathological features of the respiratory tract, besides the morphological aspects on agar plate and the biochemical profile.

The same true of A. pleuropneumoniae, which shows many characteristics of pathogenicity similar to those of M. haemolytica.

top


 

Disease Course

The pathogenesis of infections by Mannheimia haemolytica is not well known. After colonization of the upper respiratory tract, the microorganism colonizes the lower respiratory tract and finally enters the alveolar spaces (Ewers et al., 2004; Malazdrewich et al., 2004). At these sites, there is a strong influx of neutrophiles, this neutrophil infiltration is associated with alveolar epithelial damage and necrosis, which results in increased vascular permeability, leading to alveolar flooding and pulmonary dysfunction.

Neutrophils cause lung damage by release of elastase, myeloperoxidase and reactive oxygen intermediates, which cause structural degradation of lung tissue (Malazdrewich et al., 2004). In addition, neutrophils can secrete cytokines, which can amplify and sustain the inflammatory response in the lung resulting in lung pathology associated with disease. The inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a ), IL-1b and IL-8 play a pivotal role in the initiation of the interactions between cytokines, leukocytes, vascular endothelium, cellular adhesion molecules and soluble chemotactic factors.

Recent studies indicate that bovine IL-8 is a chemoattractant for neutrophils and plays a key role in the genesis of lung injury associated with bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis (Malazdrewich et al., 2001; Caswell et al., 2001).

In the mastitis of sheep due to M. haemolytica, adherence to mammary epithelial cells has been considered critical for colonization. In effect, a recent study in vitro (Vilela et al., 2004) has demonstrated that adherence and internalization mechanisms may be present in the onset of mastitis caused by M. haemolytica. These mechanisms may be an important feature of the development of mastitis, allowing bacteria to survive and persist in the mammary gland.

Pneumonic mannheimiosis is characterized in feedlot cattle by acute fibrino-purulent pneumonia. Morbidity is due to substantial weight loss, obstruction of bronchioles due to fibrinous exudate, accumulation of macrophages and fibrin in the alveoli, and subsequent thrombosis and lymphatic vessel distention. The disease can rapidly progress to fatality (Lo, 2001).

Septicaemia of sheep due to M. haemolytica takes two forms. One occurs in lambs less than 3 months old, involving severe pleuritis and pericarditis. The other occurs in lambs of 5-12 months of age and is acute or peracute and outbreaks of disease often coincide with a change in diet or other stress. It is postulated that microorganisms already present in the tonsils multiply and invade the adjacent tissues of the alimentary tract. Microorganisms enter the bloodstream as emboli and lodge in the capillary beds of the lung, liver and spleen. Rapid multiplication of M. haemolytica in these tissues leads to death (Mackie et al., 1995).

In ovine mastitis, the nursing lamb is suspected of both introducing the agent and providing the machanical trauma needed for the development of clinical disease, which is characterized by severe, usually unilateral, necrotizing inflammation of the mammary gland ('blue bag') (Dewani et al., 2002, Scott and Jones, 1998).

In adult camels, M. haemolytica has been isolated from pneumonic lungs and from cases of chronic, suppurative mastitis (Woubit et al., 2001; Alhendi, 2000; El Jakee, 1998).

top


 

Disease Treatment Table

DrugDosage, administration and withdrawal timesLife stagesAdverse affectsDrug resistanceType
amoxycillin + clavulanic acid 7 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment. All Stages  No Drug 
danofloxacin 6 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment. All Stages  No Drug 
florfenicol 20 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment. Calf  No Drug 
marbofloxacin 2 mg/kg bodyweight per day s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment. All Stages  No Drug 
Once PMH (Intervet) 2 ml i.m.; annual revaccination. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. Calf  No Vaccine 
One Shot (Pfizer) 2 ml s.c. at least 14 days before weaning, shipping or exposure to stress or infections. A booster is recommended. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. No Vaccine 
oxytetracycline 200 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment. Lamb  No Drug 
oxytetracycline 10 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment. All Stages  No Drug 
Presponse SQ Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.. Do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursing pregnant cows. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. No Vaccine 
Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim) Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m.; repeat in 14-28 days. Annual revaccinationis recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days of slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. No Vaccine 
Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim) Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m.; repeat in 14-28 days. Annual revaccination is recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days of slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. No Vaccine 
Pulmo-guard PHM-1 (Boehringer Ingelheim) Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c.; abooster dose is recommended 21 days before subsequent stress. Annual revaccination is recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days before slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. No Vaccine 
Pyramid 4 Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.. Do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursing pregnant cows. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. No Vaccine 
tilmicosin 15 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment. Lamb  No Drug 
Triangle 9+PH-K Inject 5 mil i.m., repeat in 14-28 days. Revaccinate calves at weaning; revaccinate annually. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. No Vaccine 

 

 top


 

Disease Treatment

At present, treatment of bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis is based almost exclusively on systemic antibiotic therapy. In fact, there are many antibiotics that are used for treatment, often both in calves and in lambs. Examples are oxytetracycline, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin, tilmicosin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, talaromycin, florfenicol, with a dosage ranging from 6 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg (Aslan et al., 2002; Christodoulopoulos et al., 2002; Cusack, 2004; Frank, 2002; Hurd, 1999; Rowan et al., 2004; Sarasola et al., 2002; Schwan, 1998; Thomas et al., 2001; Traeder and Grothues, 2004).

Furthermore, metaphylactic administration of long-acting antibiotics (such as oxytetracicline) to calves on arrival at the feedlot has become a common preventive measure. This procedure reduces morbidity and mortality during the early feeding period in calves (Malazdrewich et al., 2004).

The bovine strains are more resistant than ovine strains to several antibiotics: ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc. (Euzeby, 1999, Singer et al., 1998).

The resistance to ampicillin is due to plasmids that code for a b -lactamase named ROB-1, the resistance to chloramphenicol is due to the synthesis of an acetyltransferase III coded by a plasmid that can also act on florfenicol. A chromosomal gene encodes for resistance to sulfamides (Euzeby, 1999).

Current evidence indicates that widespread use of antibiotics may have contributed to the emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of M. haemolytica (Malazdrewich et al., 2004; Euzeby, 1999). Nevertheless, mass medication of cattle with antibiotics also poses some serious problems. This therapeutical practise, in fact, promotes the trasfer of antibiotic resistance genes from animal pathogens to human bacterial pathogens. So alternative approaches to bovine mannheimiosis are being researched.

 top


 

Vaccines

VaccineDosage, Administration and Withdrawal TimesLife StagesAdverse Affects
Once PMH (Intervet) 2 ml i.m.; annual revaccination. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. -Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf  
One Shot (Pfizer) 2 ml s.c. at least 14 days before weaning, shipping or exposure to stress or infections. A booster is recommended. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. -Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. 
Presponse SQ Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.. Do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursing pregnant cows. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. -Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. 
Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim) Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m.; repeat in 14-28 days. Annual revaccinationis recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days of slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. -Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. 
Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim) Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m.; repeat in 14-28 days. Annual revaccination is recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days of slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. -Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. 
Pulmo-guard PHM-1 (Boehringer Ingelheim) Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c.; abooster dose is recommended 21 days before subsequent stress. Annual revaccination is recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days before slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. -Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. 
Pyramid 4 Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.. Do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursing pregnant cows. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. -Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. 
Triangle 9+PH-K Inject 5 mil i.m., repeat in 14-28 days. Revaccinate calves at weaning; revaccinate annually. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines. -Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf Anaphylactic reactions may occur. 

 top


 

Prevention and Control

Vaccination with formalized bacterins has been practised for almost 60 years with a questionable efficacy. In fact, killed bacterins induce agglutinating antibodies in vaccinated cattle but with little or no antitoxic response. Better protection has been demonstrated after immunization with live organisms, probably due to in vivo elaboration of toxin and other virulence factors. Several component vaccines have recently been introduced, and most are complex and composed mainly of soluble antigens, including capsular carbohydrate-protein antigens and leukotoxin. Vaccination using these vaccines stimulates both antitoxic and serospecific agglutinating activities (Auad et al., 2001; Choe et al., 2000; Frank et al., 2002; Kerkhofs et al., 2004; Marchart et al., 2003; Stevens et al., 1997).

At present there are many vaccines for preventing M. haemolytica infections besides the commercial products listed below. Always take veterinary advice before using vaccines or treatments mentioned in this Compendium.

LeukoTox (AAH)

Leukotox is a newly formulated bacterin-toxoid that uses a combination of oil, water and other potentiators of the immune system. The product was designed to be used with re-vaccination 2 to 3 weeks apart so that the animals would have the maximum effect from the bacterin. Vaccine for M. haemolytica and P. multocida.

LeukoTox 1 (AHH) is a vaccine for M. haemolytica only.

Once PMH (Intervet)

Must be used for vaccinating healthy cattle against respiratory disease caused by M. haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, administer 2 ml i.m., with annual revaccination, a single 2-ml dose is recommended.

One Shot (Pfizer)

It is a bacterin-toxoid for vaccination of healthy cattle as an aid in the prevention of infection caused by M. haemolytica type A1. Injected 2 ml s.c. least 14 days before weaning, shipping or exposure to stress or infectious conditions. A booster is recommended whenever subsequent stress or exposure is likely.

A 21-day slaughter withdrawal is required.

Anaphylactic reactions may occur.

Pyramid 4 plus Presponse SQ (Fort Dodge)

Pyramid 4 is a modified-live bovine herpes virus 1 (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine parainfluenzavirus 3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Presponse SQ is a preparation of M. haemolytica toxoid for vaccination of healthy dairy or beef cattle of 6 months of age or older. Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.; do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursed by pregnant cows.

21-day slaughter withdrawal period.

Anaphylactic reactions may occur.

Triangle 9+PH-K (Fort Dodge)

It is used for the vaccination of healthy cattle against IBR, BVDV, PI3, BRSV and infections caused by M. haemolytica and 5 most common strains of Leptospira. Inject 5 ml i.m., repeat in 14-28 days. Revaccinate calves at weaning, revaccinate annually.

21-day slaughter withdrawal.

Anaphylactic reactions may occur.

Presponse HM and Presponse SQ (Fort Dodge)

These vaccines provide cattle with protection against M. haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.

Pulmo-guard PH-1 (Boehringer Ingelheim)

This is a M. haemolytica bacterin toxoid, it contains leukotoxoids and antigens from chemically inactivated cultures of multiple isolates of the two bacteria in a triple adjuvant.

Ready to use, single dose, inject 2 ml s.c. in the front of shoulder and midway of the neck away from the suprascapular lymph node. A booster dose is recommended 21 days before subsequent stress. Annual revaccination is recommended.

Do not vaccinate within 60 days before slaughter.

Anaphylactic reactions may occur.

Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim)

This is a M. haemolytica and P. multocida bacterin-toxoid and contains leukotoxoids and antigens from chemically inactivated cultures of multiple isolates of the two bacteria in a double adjuvant.

Ready to use, single dose, inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m. in the middle of the neck. Repeat in 14 to 28 days. Annual revaccination is recommended.

Do not vaccinate within 60 days before slaughter.

Anaphylactic reactions may occur.

PH Bac 1 (Agrilabs)

This is a M. haemolytica attenuated bacterin. Inject 2 ml i.m., no booster is needed.

top


 

References

African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/pan-african-animal-health-yearbook

Al Tarazi YHM, Robinson A, Sherman DM, 2002. The efficacy of an experimental Pasteurella hemolytica vaccine as measured by seroconversion in Awassi lambs in Jordan. 1st International Conference on Sheep and Goat Diseases and Productivity, Irbid, Jordan, 23 25 October 1999. Small Ruminant Research, 45(2):201-208.

Al-Ghamdi GM, Ames TR, Baker JC, Walker R, Chase CCL, Frank GH, Maheswaran SK, 2000. Serotyping of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica isolates from the upper Midwest United States. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 12(6):576-578; 18 ref.

Alhendi AAB, 2000. Clinical aspects of she camel mastitis (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 42(84):112-119; 16 ref.

Ali AR, Youssef AE, 2003. Bacteriological studies and biochemical parameters of respiratory infection in ostriches. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza, 51(2):189-203.

Alley MR, 2002. Pneumonia in sheep in New Zealand: an overview. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 50(3 Supplement):99-101; 39 ref.

Al-Rawashdeh OF, Al-Ani FK, Sharrif LA, Al-Qudah KM, Al-Hami Y, Frank N, 2000. A survey of camel (Camelus dromedarius) diseases in Jordan. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 31(3):335-338; 21 ref.

Al-Sultan II, 1995. Prevalence of Pasteurella haemolytica serotypes causing pneumonic pasteurellosis in Iraqi sheep. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 8(1):163-166; 15 ref.

Andrews AH, Blowey RW, Boyd H, Eddy RG, 1992. Bovine medicine. Diseases and husbandry of cattle. Bovine medicine. Diseases and husbandry of cattle., 922 pp.; many ref.

Angen O, Ahrens P, Bisgaard M, 2002. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica-like strains isolated from diseased animals in Denmark. Veterinary Microbiology, 84(1/2):103-114; 17 ref.

Angen O, Mutters R, Caugant DA, Olsen JE, Bisgaard M, 1999. Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov., Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 49(1):67-86; 69 ref.

Aslan V, Maden M, Erganis O, Birdane FM, Corlu M, 2002. Clinical efficacy of florfenicol in the treatment of calf respiratory tract infections. Veterinary Quarterly, 24(1):35-39; 36 ref.

Astorga RJ, Carrasco L, Luque I, Gomez-Villamandos JC, Perea A, 1996. Pneumonic pasteurellosis associated with Pasteurella haemolytica in chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus). Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 43(1):59-62; 10 ref.

Auad J, Carbonero Martínez A, Victoria Maure MV, Daffner JF, Gleser HD, 2001. Inoculation trial and humoral response with an inactivated oily vaccine against the bovine respiratory complex (BRC). Veterinaria Argentina, 18(176):430-439; 8 ref.

Bekele T, 1999. Studies on the respiratory disease, 'Sonbobe', in camels in the eastern lowlands of Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 31(6):333-345; 10 ref.

Bekele T, Molla B, 2001. Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia. Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 114(5/6):169-172; 18 ref.

Berry E, 1998. Update on summer mastitis. British Mastitis Conference 1998., 46-53; 17 ref.

Birbir M, Bowersock T, Ryker D, Ilgaz A, 1995. A comparison of the cytotoxicity of Pasteurella haemolytica A and Pasteurella haemolytica-like organisms for chickens. Türk Veterinerlik ve Hayvancilik Dergisi, 19(2):79-85; 29 ref.

Bisgaard M, Mutters R, 1986. Re-investigations of selected bovine and ovine strains previously classified as Pasteurella haemolytica and description of some new taxa within the Pasteurella haemolytica-complex. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, B, 94(3):185-193; 27 ref.

Blackall PJ, Bisgaard M, Stephens CP, 2002. Phenotypic characterization of Australian sheep and cattle isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica, Mannheimia granulomatis and Mannheimia varigena. Australian Veterinary Journal, 80(1/2):87-91; 27 ref.

Booker CW, Guichon PT, Jim GK, Schunicht OC, Harland RJ, Morley PS, 1999. Seroepidemiology of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 40(1):40-48; 44 ref.

Booker CW, Guichon PT, Morley PS, Jim GK, Schunicht OC, Harland R, 1997. Seroepidemiology of respiratory disease in feedlot calves in Western Canada. épidémiologie et Santé Animale, No. 31/32:05.09.1-05.09.3; 8 ref.

Caswell JL, Middleton DM, Gordon JR, 2001. The importance of interleukin-8 as a neutrophil chemoattractant in the lungs of cattle with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 65(4):229-232; 25 ref.

Catana N, Necsulescu M, Lazau A, Herman V, Ramneantu M, Ciorba D, 1997. The prevalence of Pasteurella infections in calves with respiratory diseases. Al 22-lea simpozion, Cluj-Napoca, 1996. Actualitati în patologia animalelor domestice: lucrari stiintifice., 288-290; 11 ref.

Catry B, Govaere JLJ, Devriese L, Laevens H, Haesebrouck F, Kruif Ade, 2002. Bovine enzootic bronchopneumonia: prevalence of pathogens and its antimicrobial susceptibility. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 71(5):348-354; 25 ref.

Chaslus-Dancla E, Lesage-Descauses MC, Leroy-Sétrin S, Martel JL, Coudert P, Lafont JP, 1996. Validation of random amplified polymorphic DNA assays by ribotyping as tools for epidemiological surveys of Pasteurella from animals. Veterinary Microbiology, 52(1/2):91-102; 23 ref.

Choe ChangYong, Lee MyeongSik, Na SeungHwan, Jung YoungHun, Yoon SoonSeek, Choe SangYong, Na KieJun, 2000. Vaccination and mass medication for preventing shipping fever in Korean native cattle. Korean Journal of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, 17(1):52-56; 19 ref.

Christensen H, Bisgaard M, Bojesen AM, Mutters R, Olsen JE, 2003. Genetic relationships among avian isolates classified as Pasteurella haemolytica, 'Actinobacillus salpingitidis' or Pasteurella anatis with proposal of Gallibacterium anatis gen. nov., comb. nov. and description of additional genomospecies within Gallibacterium gen. nov.. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 53(1):275-287.

Christodoulopoulos G, Warnick LD, Papaioannou N, Fthenakis GC, 2002. Tilmicosin administration to young lambs with respiratory infection: safety and efficacy considerations. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 25(5):393-397; 36 ref.

Cudd L, Clarke C, Clinkenbeard K, 2003. Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced increase in leukotriene B4 production by bovine neutrophils is mediated by a sustained and excessive increase in intracellular calcium concentration. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 224:85-90.

Cusack PMV, 2004. Effect of mass medication with antibiotics at feedlot entry on the health and growth rate of cattle destined for the Australian domestic market. Australian Veterinary Journal, 82(3):154-156.

Davies RL, Baillie S, 2003. Cytotoxic activity of Mannheimia haemolyitica strains in relation to diversity of the leukotoxin structural gene lktA. Veterinary Microbiology, 92:263-279.

Dewani P, Rind R, Bhutto B, 2002. Bacteriological studies on mastitis in ewes and goats. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 1(2):98-100; 17 ref.

Dutta TK, Singh VP, Kumar AA, 2001. Rapid and specific diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia by using PCR assay. Indian Journal of Animal Health, 40(2):101-107.

Dyer NW, Ward ACS, 1998. Pneumonic pasteurellosis associated with Pasteurella hemolytica serotype A6 in American bison (Bison bison). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 10(4):360-362; 15 ref.

Dyer NW, Ward ACS, Weiser GC, White DG, 2001. Seasonal incidence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Pasteurellaceae isolated from American bison (Bison bison). Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 65(1):7-14.

Dziva F, Mohan K, 2000. Pasteurellosis and Pasteurellae in Zimbabwe: an update. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal, 31(1):1-10; 39 ref.

El Jakee J, 1998. Microbiological studies on mammary glands of one humped she-camels in Egypt. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 5(2):243-246.

El-Rahman AAA, Sayed AS, Sadiek AH, Mohamed NA, 2002. Bovine ephemeral fever: isolation of the causative virus and the associating bacterial respiratory complications. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 46(92):196-212; 48 ref.

Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, 2000. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine: diseases of the dog and cat, Volumes 1 and 2, Ed. 5. Philadelphia, USA: W.B. Saunders, 1996 pp.

Euzeby JP, 1999. Mannheimia. Dictionnaire de Bactériologie Vétérinaire. On-line: http://www.bacterio.net/mannheimia.html

Ewers C, Lubke Becker A, Wieler LH, 2004. Mannheimia haemolytica and the pathogenesis of pneumonic pasteurellosis. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 117(3-4):97-115.

Fels Klerx HJ van der, Martin SW, Nielen M, Huirne RBM, der Fels Klerx HJ van, van der Fels Klerx HJ, 2002. Effects on productivity and risk factors of Bovine Respiratory Disease in dairy heifers, a review for the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 50(1):27-45.

Frank GH, 1998. Pasteurella haemolytica and pneumonic pasteurellosis in transported cattle. Proceedings One Hundred and Second Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 3-9 October, 1998., 348-355; 41 ref.

Frank GH, Briggs RE, Duff GC, Loan RW, Purdy CW, 2002. Effects of vaccination prior to transit and administration of florfenicol at time of arrival in a feedlot on the health of transported calves and detection of Mannheimia haemolytica in nasal secretions. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 63(2):251-256; 23 ref.

Fthenakis GC, 1994. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in ewes of Southern Greece. Small Ruminant Research, 13(3):293-300; 28 ref.

Griffin D, 1997. Economic impact associated with respiratory disease in beef cattle. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 13(3):367-377; 23 ref.

Harwood D, 2003. Diseases of dairy goats. In Practice, 26(5):248-259.

Harwood DG, Otter A, Gunning R, 1995. Peracute pleuropneumonia in adult cattle. Cattle Practice, 3(2):149-151.

Heng HG, Zamri-Saad M, Nor'Izah A, Sheikh-Omar AR, Rasedee A, 1996. The role of lipopolysaccharide of Pasteurella haemolytica in the development of experimental pasteurellosis in rabbits. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 8(2):53-56; 20 ref.

Hornauer N, Haidn B, Schön H, 2001. Animal health in outside climate housing with kennels for fattening pigs. Agrartechnische Forschung, 7(1/3):E11-E14; 11 ref.

Hurd DR, 1999. Marbocyl [marbofloxacin] - an advanced fluoroquinolone for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Irish Veterinary Journal, 52(2):95, 97.

Ibrahim RS, Sohair, Hussein Z, 2000. Bacterial agents associated with sinusitis in waterfowls and turkeys in Assiut and El-Minia Governorates. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 44(87):185-195; 24 ref.

Iovane G, Galdiero M, Vitiello M, Martino Lde, 1998. Effect of Pasteurella haemolytica outer membrane proteins on bovine neutrophils. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 20(1):29-36; 59 ref.

Ismail TM, Hatem ME, ed, Shehab MM, El Tahlawy MR, Mahmoud MR, 1998. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in a dairy cattle herd in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Eighth Scientific Congress, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, 15 17 November, 1998. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 646-653.

Kaneene JB, Hurd HS, 1990. The National Animal Health Monitoring System in Michigan. III. Cost estimates of selected dairy cattle diseases. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 8(2-3):127-140; 38 ref.

Kang HeeJung, Kim IkChun, Kim JinHoe, Son WonGeun, Lee DuSik, Kang HJ, Kim IC, Kim JH, Son WG, Lee DS, 2001. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from bovine mastitic milk. Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, 41(4):511-521.

Kanwar NS, Paliwal OP, Ram Kumar, Kumar AA, 1998. Pneumonic pasteurellosis in goats. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 19(2):99-101; 12 ref.

Katsuda K, Kohmoto M, Kawashima K, Tsunemitsu H, Tsuboi T, Eguchi M, 2003. Molecular typing of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotype A1 isolates from cattle in Japan. Epidemiology and Infection, 131(2):939-946.

Kerkhofs P, Tignon M, Petry H, Mawhinney I, Sustronck B, 2004. Responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) following use of an inactivated BRSV PI3 Mannheimia haemolytica vaccine and a modified live BRSV BVDV vaccine. Veterinary Journal, 167(2):208-210.

Khan A, Khan MZ, 1997. Bacteria isolated from natural cases of buffalo and bovine neonatal calf diarrhoea, pneumonia and pneumoenteritis. Veterinarski Arhiv, 67(4):161-167; 24 ref.

Kim JeongRae, Kim BangHyun, Yoo HanSang, Lee DeogYong, Kim KiGeun, Jean KyungSun, Hwang WooSuk, Lee ByungChun, Kim DaeYong, Kim JR, Kim BH, Yoo HS, Lee DY, Kim KG, Jean KS, Hwang WS, Lee BC, Kim DY, 2001. Concurrent infection with heartworm and Pasteurella haemolytica induced pericarditis in a jaguar (Panthera onca onca). Journal of Veterinary Clinics, 18(1):85-87.

Kim JongShu, Heo JungHo, Jung MyungHo, Cho MyungHeui, Kim NamChul, Lee KukCheon, Seo JongLip, Son SungGi, 2001. Isolation and antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Pasteurella spp from pneumonic calves and cows. Journal of Veterinary Clinics, 18(2):98-104; 24 ref.

Kodjo A, Villard L, Bizet C, Martel JL, Sanchis R, Borges E, Gauthier D, Maurin F, Richard Y, 1999. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is more efficient than ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis in discrimination of Pasteurella haemolytica strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(2):380-385; 26 ref.

Le Van Tao, Pham Son Ho, 1998. Experimental reproduction of pasteurellosis in goats with Pasteurella isolated from goats in North Vietnam. Khoa Hoc Ky Thuat Thu Y, 5(2):46-52.

Lo RYC, 2001. Genetic analysis of virulence factors of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica A1. Veterinary Microbiology, 83(1):23-35; 39 ref.

Lyakh YuG, Androsik NN, 1996. Prevalence of pasteurellosis in cattle and pigs in Belarus. Veterinarnaya nauka - proizvodstvu, No.:136-140; 4 ref.

Mackie JT, Barton M, Hindmarch M, Holsworth I, 1995. Pasteurella haemolytica septicaemia in sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal, 72(12):474; 13 ref.

Malazdrewich C, Ames TR, Abrahamsen MS, Maheswaran SK, 2001. Pulmonary expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-8 in the acute phase of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Veterinary Pathology, 38(3):297-310; 46 ref.

Malazdrewich C, Thumbikat P, Maheswaran SK, 2004. Protective effect of dexamethasone in experimental bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis. Microbial Pathogenesis, 36:227-236.

Marchart J, Dropmann G, Lechleitner S, Schlapp T, Wanner G, Szostak MP, Lubitz W, 2003. Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella haemolytica ghosts:new vaccine candidates. Vaccine, 21(25-26):3988-3997.

Martin SW, Harland RJ, Bateman KG, Nagy é, 1998. The association of titers to Haemophilus somnus, and other putative pathogens, with the occurrence of bovine respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 62(4):262-267; 14 ref.

Martino PA, 2000. Microbiological studies on bovine respiratory disease, a review. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 21(10):29-32; 21 ref.

Martrenchar A, Zoyem N, Ngangnou A, Bouchel D, Ngo Tama AC, Njoya A, 1995. Study of the main infectious agents involved in the aetiology of pulmonary diseases of small ruminants in Northern Cameroon. Revue d'élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 48(2):133-137; 15 ref.

Miklós R, Izadpanah R, László F, 1999. Aetiology of the respiratory disease complex on some intensive cattle and sheep farms in Hungary. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 121(5):255-259; 21 ref.

Mishra N, Mishra S, Pawaiya RVS, Bhagwan PSK, 2000. Isolation and characterization of Pasteurella haemolytica from a field outbreak in sheep of Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 70(5):443-445; 15 ref.

Morton RJ, Simons KR, Confer AW, 1996. Major outer membrane proteins of Pasteurella haemolytica serovars 1-15: comparison of separation techniques and surface-exposed proteins on selected serovars. Veterinary Microbiology, 51(3/4):319-330; 19 ref.

Munish Batra, Bhatia KC, Alok Sharma, Jitender Kumar, 2002. Clinicohematological studies on experimental Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC) pneumonia in lambs. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 36(1):7-11; 13 ref.

Nakaya I, Tomita K, Ikeuchi T, Torikai Y, 1998. Bacterial isolates from pneumonic lungs of slaughtered calves. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 51(3):136-140; 26 ref.

Nasef SA, Badr JM, Tanios NI, 2003. Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of some bacterial agents isolated from ostriches. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 49 (9):194-206.

O'Connor A, Martin SW, Nagy É, Menzies P, Harland R, 2001. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to Haemophilus somnus and Mannheimia haemolytica at 3 Ontario feedlots. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 65(3):143-150; 13 ref.

Odendaal MW, Henton MM, 1995. The distribution of Pasteurella haemolytica serotypes among cattle, sheep and goats in South Africa and their association with disease. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 62(4):223-226; 3 ref.

Odugbo MO, Odama LE, Umoh JU, Makinde AA, 2003. Serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica from pneumonic lungs of sheep in northern Nigeria. Small Ruminant Research, 48(3):239-243.

Odugbo MO, Okpara JO, Abechi SA, Kumbish TI, 2004. An outbreak of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep due to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotype 7. Veterinary Journal, 167(2):214-215.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

Oladele SB, Raji MT, Raji MA, 1999. Prevalence of bacterial and fungal microflora isolated from some wild and domesticated birds in Zaria, Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 47(3):127-132.

Ozbey G, Muz A, 2004. Isolation of aerobic bacterial agents from the lungs of sheep and goats with pneumonia and detection of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica by polymerase chain reaction. Turk Veterinerlik ve Hayvancilik Dergisi, 28(1):209-216.

özgür NY, Gürel A, Yilmaz H, Ilgaz A, Yesildere T, 1995. Pasteurellosis in sheep in Istanbul. Infeksiyon Dergisi = Turkish Journal of Infection, 9(4):425-429; 25 ref.

Pijoan Aguadé P, Aguilar Romero F, 2000. Antimicrobial resistance and sensitivity of strains of Pasteurella haemolytica, P. multocida and Haemophilus somnus, isolated from calves in dairy herds in Tijuana. Veterinaria México, 31(2):153-156; 18 ref.

Pijoan Aguade P, Chavez Duron JA, 2003. Cost of pneumonia in dairy calves lodged under two housing systems. Veterinaria Mexico, 34(4):333-342.

Purdy CW, Straus DC, Harp JA, Mock R, 2001. Microbial pathogen survival study in a high plains feedyard playa. Texas Journal of Science, 53 (3):247-266.

Rajesh Chahota, Katoch RC, Arvind Mahajan, Subhash Verma, 2000. Association of pasteurella haemolytica with bovine abortion - a case report. Indian Veterinary Journal, 77(9):807-808; 4 ref.

Redondo E, Masot AJ, Martinez S, Jimenez A, Gazquez A, 1994. Spontaneous bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in goats: pathological findings. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 41(1):27-34; 21 ref.

Rowan TG, Sarasola P, Sunderland SJ, Giles CJ, Smith DG, 2004. Efficacy of danofloxacin in the treatment of respiratory disease in European cattle. Veterinary Record, 154(19):585-589.

Rowe HA, Poxton IR, Donachie W, 2001. Survival of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica in tracheobronchial washings of sheep and cattle. Veterinary Microbiology, 81(4):305-314; 23 ref.

Sarasola P, Lees P, AliAbadi FS, McKellar QA, Donachie W, Marr KA, Sunderland SJ, Rowan TG, 2002. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of danofloxacin administered by two dosing regimens in calves infected with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46(9):3013-3019; 20 ref.

Sasani F, Atyabi N, Dehaghi MR, 2002. Pneumonic pasteurellosis (Fibrinous bronchopneumonia) in lamb due to pasteurella hemolytica (Biotype T). Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, 57(3):73-74.

Schwan O, 1998. Trial with long-acting oxytetracycline in a sheep flock with pasteurellosis. Svensk Veterinärtidning, 50(4):137-140; 5 ref.

Scott MJ, Jones JET, 1998. The carriage of Pasteurella haemolytica in sheep and its transfer between ewes and lambs in relation to mastitis. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 118(4):359-363; 10 ref.

Seddek SR, 2002. Bacterial causes of lung affections in slaughtered camels in Assiut Governorate. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 46(92):169-177; 19 ref.

Sen S, Albay MK, 2003. Aetiology of respiratory tract infections in calves and evaluation of treatment with combination of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid. Indian Veterinary Journal, 80(6):519-521.

Silflow RM, Foreyt WJ, 1994. Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 30(4):529-535; 29 ref.

Singer FJ, Williams E, Miller MW, Zeigenfuss LC, 2000. Population growth, fecundity, and survivorship in recovering populations of bighorn sheep. Restoration Ecology, 8(4s):75-84.

Singer RS, Case JT, Carpenter TE, Walker RL, Hirsh DC, 1998. Assessment of spatial and temporal clustering of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant strains of Pasteurella multocida and P. haemolytica isolated from cattle in California. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 212(7):1001-1005; 20 ref.

Sisay T, Zerihun A, 2003. Diversity of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella trehalosi serotypes from apparently healthy sheep and abattoir specimens in the highlands of Wollo, North East Ethiopia. Veterinary Research Communications, 27(1):3-14.

Sischo WM, Hird DW, Gardner IA, Utterback WW, Christiansen KH, Carpenter TE, Danaye-Elmi C, Heron BR, 1990. Economics of disease occurrence and prevention on California dairy farms: a report and evaluation of data collected for the National Animal Health Monitoring system, 1986-87. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 8(2-3):141-156; 14 ref.

Sivula NJ, Ames TR, Marsh WE, Werdin RE, 1996. Descriptive epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in Minnesota dairy heifer calves. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 27(3/4):155-171; 23 ref.

Stevens RD, Dinsmore RP, Ellis RP, Katsampas M, 1997. Morbidity and mortality in young Holstein heifer calves vaccinated with a P. haemolytica leukotoxoid. Large Animal Practice, 18(6):23.29; 21 ref.

Strathdee CA, Lo RYC, 1989. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and characterization of genes encoding the secretion function of the Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin determinant. Journal of Bacteriology, 171(2):916-928; 51 ref.

Straus DC, Purdy CW, Loan RW, Briggs RF, Frank GH, 1998. In vivo production of neuraminidase by Pasteurella haemolytica in market stressed cattle after natural infection. Current Microbiology, 37(4):240-244; 23 ref.

Straw BE, D'Allaire S, Mengeling WL, Taylor DJ, 1999. Diseases of swine. Diseases of swine., Ed. 8:xx + 1209 pp.; [128 contributors. [http://www.isupress.edu]].

Suzuki T, Ikeda A, Yoshizawa S, Koizumi T, Mashima K, Nakazawa M, Yoshida T, Sawada T, 1995. An outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia in dairy cows due to Pasteurella haemolytica. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 48(10):755-759; 21 ref.

Taylor LF, 1998. Outbreak of fibrinous pneumonia in recently weaned beef calves in southern Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal, 76(1):21-24; 14 ref.

Taylor SK, Ward ACS, Hunter DL, Gunther K, Kortge L, 1996. Isolation of Pasteurella spp. from free-ranging American bison (Bison bison). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 32(2):322-325; 26 ref.

Tefera G, Smola J, 2002. Modification of Cary Blair transport medium for Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 71(2):229-233.

Tefera G, Smola J, 2002. The utility of the ENTERORapid 24 kit for the identification of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. Veterinární Medicína, 47(4):99-103; 5 ref.

Thomas E, Caldow GL, Borell D, Davot JL, 2001. A field comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of marbofloxacin in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 24(5):353-358; 15 ref.

Thorn CE, Papp JR, Shewen PE, Stirtzinger T, 2000. Experimentally induced pneumonia in scid/beige mice, using a bovine isolate of Pasteurella haemolytica. Comparative Medicine, 50(2):153-159; 64 ref.

Topolko S, Benic M, 1997. Problems and epidemiology of subclinical mastitis in small-farm milk production. Praxis Veterinaria (Zagreb), 45(1/2):69-76; 9 ref.

Traeder W, Grothues M, 2004. Pharmacological characteristics and efficacy of Tulathromycin, the first representative of the Triamilide antibiotics. Tierarztliche Umschau, 59(2):102-113.

Trolldenier H, 2001. Overview of the development of resistance of porcine pathogens in the former German Democratic Republic and in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1976 to 1998. Tierärztliche Umschau, 56(6):292-298; 7 ref.

Vandaële E, 2001. The extreme dose dependant [injection] of danofloxacin. Point Vétérinaire, 32(213):18-19.

Vilela CL, Fitzpatrick J, Morgan K, 2004. In vitro adherence and invasion of ovine mammary epithelium by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica. Veterinary Journal, 167(2):211-213.

Vogel G, Nicolet J, Martig J, Tschudi P, Meylan M, 2001. Bacterial flora isolated from the lungs of calves with pneumonia and their resistance patterns to antimicrobial drugs. SAT, Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 143(7):341-350; 36 ref.

Vogel GJ, Laudert SB, Zimmermann A, Guthrie CA, Mechor GD, Moore GM, 1998. Effects of tilmicosin on acute undifferentiated respiratory tract disease in newly arrived feedlot cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 212(12):1919-1924; 15 ref.

Ward ACS, Dyer NW, Fenwick BW, 1999. Pasteurellaceae isolated from tonsillar samples of commercially-reared American bison (Bison bison). Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 63(3):161-165; 36 ref.

Ward ACS, Hunter DL, Jaworski MD, Benolkin PJ, Dobel MP, Jeffress JB, Tanner GA, 1997. Pasteurella spp. in sympatric bighorn and domestic sheep. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 33(3):544-557; 30 ref.

Woubit S, Bayleyegn M, Bonnet P, Jean-Baptiste S, 2001. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Borena lowland pastoral area, Southwestern Ethiopia. Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 54(3/4):207-212; 22 ref.

Yener Z, Gürtürk K, Gülbahar Y, Solmaz H, 2001. Pathological and bacteriological studies on pneumonia in goats slaughtered at Bitlis slaughterhouse. Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, 17(1):13-20; 30 ref.

Yeruham I, Elad D, Liberboim M, 1999. Clinical and microbiological study of an otitis media outbreak in calves in a dairy herd. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 46(3):145-150; 14 ref.

Younan M, Fodor L, 1995. Characterisation of a new Pasteurella haemolytica serotype (A17). Research in Veterinary Science, 58(1):98; 10 ref.

Zaitoun AM, 2001. Clinical study of pneumonic mycoplasmosis and pasteurellosis (concurrent infection) in a commercial sheep-flock. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 45(89):162-180; 21 ref.

Zizzo N, Normanno G, Perillo A, Marzano G, 2003. Bacteriological and anatomic-histopatologic investigations on sea turtles beached in Peninsula Salentina coast. Summa, 20(4):29-34.

top


 

Links to Websites

top


 

Images


Erythema of the ears, jowls and on the face - typical acute septicaemia (in this case pasteurellosis). © Ranald D.A. Cameron.Erythema of the ears, jowls and on the face - typical acute septicaemia (in this case pasteurellosis). © Ranald D.A. Cameron. 

 Pasteurellosis, commonly known in North America as shipping fever, is perhaps the most important disease in which the practitioner will see fibrinous pneumonia. In Asia, haemorrhagic septicaemia is a more frequent result of Pasteurella infection. © Paul R. Greenough.Pasteurellosis, commonly known in North America as shipping fever, is perhaps the most important disease in which the practitioner will see fibrinous pneumonia. In Asia, haemorrhagic septicaemia is a more frequent result of Pasteurella infection. © Paul R. Greenough.
  Practitioners may encounter sudden death in cattle due to shipping fever. An estimate of the age of lung lesions is a useful in evaluating the quality of the supervision of the animals. © Paul R. Greenough.Practitioners may encounter sudden death in cattle due to shipping fever. An estimate of the age of lung lesions is a useful in evaluating the quality of the supervision of the animals. © Paul R. Greenough.  Bovine lung with fibrinous pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine parainfluenzavirus 3, affecting the cranial lobe, the middle lobe and the cranio-ventral portions of the caudal lobes of the lungs. © Paul R. Greenough.Bovine lung with fibrinous pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica and bovine parainfluenzavirus 3, affecting the cranial lobe, the middle lobe and the cranio-ventral portions of the caudal lobes of the lungs. © Paul R. Greenough.
 Duck. 7 months old suffering from fowl cholera and Tetrameres sp. in the proventriculus. © Sri Poernomo.Duck. 7 months old suffering from fowl cholera and Tetrameres sp. in the proventriculus. © Sri Poernomo. Layer of more than 12 months old suffering from fowl cholera with a swollen wattle.|Layer of more than 12 months old suffering from fowl cholera, with a swollen wattle. © Sri Poernomo.Layer of more than 12 months old suffering from fowl cholera with a swollen wattle.|Layer of more than 12 months old suffering from fowl cholera, with a swollen wattle. © Sri Poernomo.
  Extensive oedematous swelling of the head and neck. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service.Extensive oedematous swelling of the head and neck. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service.  Extensive serofibrinous exudation and necrosis in the musculature of the neck. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service.Extensive serofibrinous exudation and necrosis in the musculature of the neck. © USDA, 2002. Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set. USDA - Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service.
 Lungs affected with bronchopneumonia caused by Pasteurella multocida. The cranio-ventral portions of the lung are affected. The cranial and middle lobes are affected and, to a lesser extent, cranio-ventral aspects of a lobe are involved. This is typical of bronchopneumonia. © Paul R. Greenough.Lungs affected with bronchopneumonia caused by Pasteurella multocida. The cranio-ventral portions of the lung are affected. The cranial and middle lobes are affected and, to a lesser extent, cranio-ventral aspects of a lobe are involved. This is typical of bronchopneumonia. © Paul R. Greenough. Dark red appearance of a bovine lung affected with Pasteurella-caused bronchopneumonia. Lungs can sometimes even appear purplish. © Paul R. Greenough.Dark red appearance of a bovine lung affected with Pasteurella-caused bronchopneumonia. Lungs can sometimes even appear purplish. © Paul R. Greenough.
 Older lesions and show massive amounts of fibrin and subsequent organization and fibrosis. © Paul R. Greenough.Older lesions and show massive amounts of fibrin and subsequent organization and fibrosis. © Paul R. Greenough. Infected cattle lungs produce large amounts of fibrin. However, in all species acute fibrinous adhesions and interlobular fibrin are replaced by fibrous tissue within 7 to 10 days. © Paul R. Greenough.Infected cattle lungs produce large amounts of fibrin. However, in all species acute fibrinous adhesions and interlobular fibrin are replaced by fibrous tissue within 7 to 10 days. © Paul R. Greenough.
 As shipping fever progresses, the swelling decreases, the lungs become firm and grey, the exudates form obvious cores in the bronchi. © Paul R. Greenough.As shipping fever progresses, the swelling decreases, the lungs become firm and grey, the exudates form obvious cores in the bronchi. © Paul R. Greenough. An acute lesion caused by shipping fever is characterized by swelling, redness and fluid exudate. © Paul R. Greenough.An acute lesion caused by shipping fever is characterized by swelling, redness and fluid exudate. © Paul R. Greenough.
 Pasteurella is an agent affecting principally both blood vessels and neutrophils. In the pig, it produces a dark plumb-coloured lung with oedema, congestion and often haemorrhage and foci of fibrino-necrotic inflammation.  © John Walton (Deceased).Pasteurella is an agent affecting principally both blood vessels and neutrophils. In the pig, it produces a dark plumb-coloured lung with oedema, congestion and often haemorrhage and foci of fibrino-necrotic inflammation. © John Walton (Deceased). 

top

Date of report: 03/06/2013

© CAB International 2013. Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.