Selected content from the Animal Health and Production Compendium (© CAB International 2013). Distributed under license by African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources.
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Preferred Scientific Name
International Common Names
atrophic rhinitis, avian cholera, barbone, bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis, bovine respiratory disease, calf pneumonia, comb necrosis in layer breeder chickens, encephalitis, enzootic calf pneumonia, ewe mastitis, fowl cholera, fowl, avian, cholera, pasteurella multocida, gallinarum, in birds, haemorrhagic septicaemia, haemorrhagic septicemia, mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia, shipping fever, pasteurellosis, mannheimia haemolytica-like organism associated with diarrhea in swine, Mannheimia mastitis, mannheimia mastitis in goats, mannheimia mastitis in sheep, Mannheimia pleuritis, Mannheimia pneumonia, mannheimia pneumonia, shipping fever, pasteurellosis, mannheimia, pasteurella mastitis in cattle, mannheimia, pasteurella pneumonia of sheep and goats, mannheimia, pasteurella pneumonia, septicemia, of sheep and goats, mannheimiosis, mastitis, mastitis in ewes due to miscellaneous bacteria, necrotizing pleuropneumonia in pigs, otitis media, externa, interna, middle and inner ear infections, Pasteurella haemolytica infections, Pasteurella mastitis, Pasteurella pleuritis, pasteurella, mannheimia, pneumonia, pleuritis, in swine, pasteurellosis in cattle, pasteurellosis of sheep and goats, pasteurellosis of swine, pneumonic pasteurellosis, septicemia of lambs or kids, tick pyemia, septicemic pasteurellosis, septicemic pasteurellosis of cattle, septicemic pasteurellosis of sheep, septicemic pasteurellosis of swine, shipping fever, shipping fever pneumonia, stockyard pneumonia, summer mastitis, summer mastitis in cattle, systemic pasteurellosis, transit fever
Mannheimia haemolytica (from Greek haima - blood, lyt – adverb form of verb lyo - dissolve and adjectival suffix – ikos latinized in – ica) is a Gram-negative bacterium which produces a weak haemolytic phenotype on sheep blood agar plates. This microorganism corresponds with Pasteurella haemolytica biogroup 1 that, in 1999, was renamed as Mannheimia (in tribute to Walter Mannheim, a German microbiologist that studied the taxonomy of the family Pasteurellaceae) (Angen et al., 1999).
M. haemolytica is an important cause of bacterial respiratory mortality in cattle, sheep and goats, moreover, it is responsible for mastitis in ewes and camels, and abortion in cattle. The bacteria also causes a rare respiratory disease in pigs associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and it has been isolated from some wild and domesticated birds (Odugbo et al., 2004, Blackall et al., 2002, Christensen et al., 2003, Dewani et al., 2002, Frank, 1998, Martino, 2000, Oladele et al., 1999).
Healthy animals can carry M. haemolytica without developing clinical signs. However, when cattle (particularly younger animals) are stressed, as in transportation from suckler herds to feedlots, the animals can become infected with respiratory viruses such as bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenzavirus 3, or bovine viral diarrhoea virus. The viruses can damage the upper respiratory tract lining, allowing M. haemolytica, which normally lies dormant in the nasal passages, to infect. The bacteria is inhaled into the lower respiratory tract where it causes great damage. Opportunistic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus somnus or Actinomyces pyogenes then take advantage of the damage done to the respiratory tissue. The interaction between the various pathogens to cause respiratory disease is often referred to as bovine respiratory disease complex.
Parti M. haemolytica is the principle microorganism responsible for bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis or mannheimiosis (BPM), also known as shipping fever. This respiratory disease is an economically significant disease in cattle, accounting for about 30% of the total cattle death in the world, and is associated with an annual economic loss of over US $1 billion only in North America (Frank, 1998).
There are several pathogenicity factors associated with M. haemolytica (fimbriae, capsule, lipopolysacharride, leukotoxin, etc.) and there are several clinical signs that it causes in domestic and wild animals: fever, cough, nasal discharge, weight loss, etc. (Alley, 2002; Kanwar et al., 1998; Alhendi, 2000; Ali and Youssef, 2003; Frank, 1998; Catry et al., 2002).
Antimicrobials such as tylmicosin, danofloxacin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are used in the treatment of the bacterium (Aslan et al., 2002, Christodoulopoulos et al., 2002, Frank et al., 2002, Hurd, 1999) and prevention of respiratory disease by vaccination is widespread (Auad et al., 2001; Choe et al., 2000; Cusack, 2004).
This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID Interface on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.
The geographical distribution of Mannheimia haemolytica is worldwide. However, the microorganism is reported most frequently in Asia and in the countries where sheep or goat breeding is widespread, such as in Africa, USA and Canada, where cattle breeding for both beef and dairy cattle is common. In Europe, pasteurellosis or mannheimiosis is also widespread involves many countries where sheep and cattle are present, such as the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and France (Topolko and Benic, 1997; Tefera and Smola, 2002a,b; Angen et al., 2002; Thomas et al., 2001; Ewers et al., 2004; Fels et al., 2002; Catana et al., 1997; Lyakh and Androsik, 1996; Harwood, 2003).
During 2011, 13 countries reported outbreaks of pasteurellosis to the AU-IBAR, comprising a total of 1,016 outbreaks, 14,014 cases and 3,284 deaths (see table below) compared to 2010 where 23 countries reported the diseases (PAHYB 2011). Similar to the previous year, Ethiopia recorded the highest number of outbreaks (570) followed by Niger (184) and Benin (77). Ethiopia reported also the highest number of deaths (1,633), followed by Niger (585) and Benin (269).
Countries reporting pasteurellosis to AU-IBAR 2011:
= Present, no further details = Widespread = Localised
= Confined and subject to quarantine = Occasional or few reports
= Evidence of pathogen = Last reported... = Presence unconfirmed
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further information for individual references may be available in the Animal Health and Production Compendium. A table for worldwide distribution can also be found in the Animal Health and Production Compendium.
|Country||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||References||Notes|
|Algeria||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Angola||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Benin||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Botswana||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Burkina Faso||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Burundi||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Cameroon||Reported present or known to be present||Native||Martrenchar et al., 1995; OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Cape Verde||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Central African Republic||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Chad||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Congo Democratic Republic||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Disease not reported||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Djibouti||Disease not reported||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Egypt||Last reported||1970||Native||Seddek, 2002; Ali & Youssef, 2003; OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Eritrea||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Ethiopia||Reported present or known to be present||Native||Woubit et al., 2001; Sisay & Zerihun, 2003; OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Ghana||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Guinea||Disease never reported||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Guinea-Bissau||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Kenya||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Libya||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Madagascar||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Malawi||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Mali||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Mauritius||Disease not reported||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Morocco||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Mozambique||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Namibia||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Niger||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Nigeria||Reported present or known to be present||Native||Odugbo et al., 2004; OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Réunion||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Rwanda||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Sao Tome and Principe||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Senegal||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Seychelles||Disease not reported||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Somalia||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|South Africa||Reported present or known to be present||Native||Odendaal & Henton, 1995; OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Sudan||Last reported||2001||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Swaziland||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Tanzania||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Togo||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Tunisia||Reported present or known to be present||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Uganda||Disease not reported||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Zambia||No information available||OIE Handistatus, 2005|
|Zimbabwe||No information available||Native||Dziva & Mohan, 2000; OIE Handistatus, 2005|
In cattle, Mannheimia haemolytica is responsible for a severe respiratory syndrome, which is often a consequence of several stressors such as transportation ('shipping fever' or 'shipping fever pneumonia'), the gathering of animals coming from different geographical areas, adverse climatic conditions (excessive cold, heat, rain, or wind) or pronounced food changes (Euzeby, 1999; Taylor, 1998; Martin et al., 1998; Martino, 2000; Frank, 1998). Also respiratory infections due to viruses or Mycoplasma are predisposing factors because they may enhance the localized multiplication of M. haemolytica and they act by altering the mechanisms of defence of the lower respiratory tract, including the lungs.
In sheep and goats there are several factors that predispose to respiratory diseases, usually in adult animals: climatic changes, overcrowding, lack of adequate shelters, transport, viral infections, mycoplasmosis, bordetellosis, pasteurellosis due to Pasteurella multocida, anaplasmosis, trypanosomiasis (in Africa), nutrient deficiencies (especially of copper). Infections due to M. haemolytica, generally, are observed all year round, even if, they are often observed at the end of spring and at the beginning of summer (this form is also known as 'summer pneumonia'), or during colder seasons in some African countries (Euzeby, 1999; Sisay and Zerihun, 2003; Berry, 1998; Dewani et al., 2002; Dziva and Mohan, 2000).
In American bison, M. haemolytica is associated with disease in domestic livestock, but it is a potential pathogen, particularly in animals that become stressed by management practices commonly used with cattle, such as herding, crowding and shipping (Taylor et al., 1996).
M. haemolytica was isolated from ostriches with respiratory infection in Egypt (Ali and Youssef, 2003) and in some wild and domesticated birds (parrots, falcons, quails, peacocks, ostriches, pigeons, turkeys, guineafowl and ducks) in Nigeria. This last identification of M. haemolytica was only an occasional isolation during an epidemiological survey, but the bacteria has been reported in adult turkeys (Birbir et al., 1995; Christensen et al., 2003; Oladele et al., 1999; Ibrahim et al., 2000).
In camels, M. haemolytica is responsible of mastitis and respiratory diseases (Al Rawashdeh et al., 2000; Alhendi, 2000; Bekele and Molla, 2001).
M. haemolytica was reported to induce pericarditis in a jaguar (Kim et al., 2001a), but in a mixed infection with heartworm.
Isolation of M. haemolytica has been reported from sea turtles found on beaches in Italy (Zizzo et al., 2003).
Experimental pasteurellosis has been induced in rabbits (Heng et al., 1996) and it is possible to reproduce the pulmonary infection in laboratory mice, particularly in scid/beige mice (Thorn et al., 2000); bronchopneumonia is induced with lesions similar to those that develop in the lungs of cattle infected with M. haemolytica.
|Bos grunniens (yaks)||Domesticated host|
|Bos indicus (zebu)||Domesticated host|
|Bos mutus (yaks, wild)||Domesticated host|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||Domesticated host|
|Bubalus bubalis (buffalo)||Domesticated host|
|Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)||Domesticated host|
|Capra hircus (goats)||Domesticated host|
|Cervus elaphus (red deer)||Domesticated host, Wild host|
|Equus asinus (donkeys)||Domesticated host|
|Equus caballus (horses)||Domesticated host|
|Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)||Domesticated host|
|Lama glama (llamas)||Domesticated host|
|Lama pacos (alpacas)||Domesticated host|
|Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)||Domesticated host|
|Mus musculus (mouse)||Experimental settings|
|Ovis aries (sheep)||Domesticated host|
|Panthera onca||Wild host|
|Struthio camelus (ostrich)||Domesticated host|
|Sus scrofa (pigs)||Domesticated host|
Blood and Circulatory System - Large Ruminants
Blood and Circulatory System - Pigs
Blood and Circulatory System - Poultry
Blood and Circulatory System - Small Ruminants
Digestive - Pigs
Mammary Glands - Large Ruminants
Mammary Glands - Pigs
Mammary Glands - Small Ruminants
Multisystem - Large Ruminants
Multisystem - Pigs
Multisystem - Poultry
Multisystem - Small Ruminants
Respiratory - Large Ruminants
Respiratory - Pigs
Respiratory - Small Ruminants
Skin - Poultry
Mannheimia haemolytica is a commensal of the nasopharynx of cattle and sheep but it can act as a primary pathogen in septicaemia of lambs or in bronchopneumonia of calves and cattle.
Many species carry M. haemolytica as a commensal in the nasopharynx and tonsils (cattle, sheep, goat, buffaloes, etc.) but only in a few species does M. haemolytica cause disease. Sheep and goats are most often affected, followed by cattle and buffaloes, in which it is often possible to observe diseases associated with stress of transportation (shipping fever), sometimes associated with Pasteurella multocida infections and viral agents (such as parainfluenza 3 virus). In other species, such as, camelids, wild and domesticated birds, etc., the bacteria is isolated less frequently and, generally, is associated with viral and mycoplasmal infections, or mixed infections with other bacteria (Kanwar et al., 1998; Mackie et al., 1995; Martin et al., 1998; Khan and Khan, 1997; Martrenchar et al., 1995; O'Connor et al., 2001; Oladele et al., 1999; Ward et al., 1999).
The main route of infection is direct transmission via nasal secretions or droplets, so it is important to ventilate the calf's environment adequately. Some recent epidemiology studies in several states of the USA have attempted to identify risk factors for morbidity and mortality both at the individual calf and herd levels. Approximately 40-80% of all diseases of North American cattle involve the respiratory system and bovine respiratory disease complex is the most important problem, involving three clinical syndromes, of which shipping fever and pneumonic pasteurellosis are due to M. haemolytica (Sivula et al., 1996).
In Africa, especially in Ethiopia, bronchopneumonia, mainly attributed to M. haemolytica, causes both morbidity (18.6%) and mortality (10.6%) in sheep and goats. In this environment the highest percentage of bacterial isolation was recorded from September to November (Sisay and Zerihun, 2003).
In experiments, the survival of M. haemolytica was 1 h on a wooden plank and 24 h in straw maintained at 20°C. Nevertheless, relative humidity and cold weather increase its survival, which can reach 48 h at 4°C, 3 days in milk or in water at 20 °C, 7 days in water at 4°C and 8 days in milk at 4°C (Euzeby, 1999).
In USA, pneumonia caused by M. haemolytica is the main cause of economical losses in the breeding of calves. The same condition is also observed in Europe (Fels, 2002). In addition, M. haemolytica is the second commonest agent causing mastitis in goats in Europe and is one of the main aetiological agents of this disease in USA.
Financial losses that result from calf pneumonia occur due to death loss, treatment cost and decreased lifetime productivity. Michigan dairy producers estimated that respiratory disease in calves cost them US $14.71 per calf/year (Kaneene and Hurd, 1990) while producers in California estimated that calf respiratory disease costs them US $9 per calf/year (Sischo et al., 1990). Recent data show that the economic loss is over US $1 billion in North America alone (Griffin, 1997).
A recent study in two dairies in Mexico (Pijoan and Aguilar, 2003) evaluated direct and indirect costs of losses due to pneumonia. Direct costs included fatalities, discards and treatment. Indirect costs included vaccination and preventive treatment. The range varied from US $52.78 per calf to US $24.72 per calf.
Mannheimia haemolytica is not an important zoonotic agent, but the mass medication of livestock in its treatment increases the risk of unwanted drug residues in meat and milk intended for human consumption.
Heat treatment of milk (pasteurization or ultra high temperature treatment) allows elimination of M. haemolytica and assures milk safety. However, in the countries where milk is consumed fresh and the microorganism is widely spread, risk of infection could be high.
In bovine mannheimiosis, the hallmark histopathological features of the disease is extensive infiltration of the airways and alveoli by neutrophils.
In the septicaemic form of bovine mannheimiosis, which is peracute, hepatosplenic-megaly, petechiae on mucous membranes, and oedema and haemorrhages at lymph nodes are observed. The acute form involves sero-haemorrhagic-fibrinous pleuritis with abundant pleural effusion, fibrinous bronchopneumonia with fibrinous or gelatinous exudate, and the parenchyma of lungs appears marbled because of concurrent necrosis and haemorrhages (Redondo et al., 1994; Suzuki et al., 1995; Taylor, 1998).
In the pathology of sheep lungs, lesions consist of large areas of pulmonary hepatization, oedema and hyperplasia of bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes. Septicaemia of lambs causes sero-haemorrhagic effusions, and haemorrhages in serosal membranes, epicardium and lungs, particularly in the peripheric lobes. The abomasal space and some intestinal tracts show a catharral-haemorrhagic inflammation. There is also obvious serofibrinous pleuritis and pericarditis.
In camels, the major postmortem lesions are hydrothorax, adhesion of the lung to the thorax, emphysema, hydropericardium and fibrinous pericarditis (Seddek, 2002).
In calves, it is possible to observe general depression with fever (41°C) and substantial weight loss, cough, respiratory distress and nasal discharge; death follows 24-48 h after onset (Frank, 1998; Munish et al., 2003; Martino, 2000; Odendaal and Henton, 1995).
In sheep and goats, initially, moderate respiratory signs (cough, nasal discharge) are observed, then signs worsen to pneumonia with fever (40.6–42.6°C). Animals dead in a few hours or a dyspnoea is present (Odendaal et al., 1995, Sasani et al., 2002, Ozbey and Muz, 2004, Zaitoun, 2001).
In ovine mastitis it is possible observe a severe, usually unilateral, necrotizing inflammation of the mammary gland with other generic systemic signs (fever, anorexia, depression, inappetance). At the beginning, milk is clear and watery, then becomes yellowish, viscous and clotted (Dewani et al., 2002, Fthenakis, 1994).
In camels, the major clinical signs observed are fever of 40-41.5°C, depression, cough, loss of appetite and a watery nasal discharge that becomes purulent at a later stage. Finally, the camel becomes recumbent and extends its neck along the ground (El Jakee, 1998, Bekele, 1999).
Tentative diagnosis is by clinical observation, but should be confirmed by pathogen isolation. Sampling methods include using nasal swabs (even though M. haemolytica can be commensal in the nasal cavity), tracheo-bronchial lavage or broncho-alveolar lavage, sampling the pulmonary parenchyma, blood, spleen, liver and lymph nodes. The bacteriological examination of milk allows differential diagnosis of mastitis due to M. haemolytica from mastitis with another aetiological agents.
The Cary-Blair medium, modified by the addition of horse blood serum, is the most effective medium for the transport of M. haemolytica strains (Tefera and Smola, 2002a).
Samples can be plated on various bacteriological media such as Columbia agar or blood agar with 5-10 % of bovine or sheep blood. The incubation is made in aerobic atmosphere or with an atmosphere enriched with CO2. After 24 h of incubation, the colonies are round and with a dimension of 1-2 mm. The presence of a haemolytic activity is variable and depends on the type of erythrocyte used for media (bovine blood is generally better).
The identification based on morphological and biochemical characteristics such as nitrate reduction, glucose fermentation, oxydase reaction, etc. Often the identification of serotypes is difficult because more than one serotype can be present in the sample.
It is possible to use the API System 20NEâ (BioMerièux, France). M. haemolytica strains can be identified using this miniaturized biochemical system. The ENTERORapid 24 kit (BioMerièux, France) is the fastest kit for the identification of the bacterial strains (within 4 to 8 h), with a correct identification rate at the species level (Tefera and Smola, 2002b).
Serotyping is done in the reference laboratory (Younan and Fodor, 1995; Christensen et al., 2003). Analysis of M. haemolytica strains and serotypes using several tecniques has shown that pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is more efficient than ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for differentiation of the bacterial strains (Chaslus et al., 1996; Kodjo et al., 1999).
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most recent tecnique used for identification of M. haemolytica from samples (Dutta et al., 2001, Katsuda et al., 2003).
Differential diagnosis is required from Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In fact, M. haemolytica is frequently mixed with P. multocida in shipping fever or in respiratory disease of calves. Differential diagnosis is based on the pathological features of the respiratory tract, besides the morphological aspects on agar plate and the biochemical profile.
The same true of A. pleuropneumoniae, which shows many characteristics of pathogenicity similar to those of M. haemolytica.
The pathogenesis of infections by Mannheimia haemolytica is not well known. After colonization of the upper respiratory tract, the microorganism colonizes the lower respiratory tract and finally enters the alveolar spaces (Ewers et al., 2004; Malazdrewich et al., 2004). At these sites, there is a strong influx of neutrophiles, this neutrophil infiltration is associated with alveolar epithelial damage and necrosis, which results in increased vascular permeability, leading to alveolar flooding and pulmonary dysfunction.
Neutrophils cause lung damage by release of elastase, myeloperoxidase and reactive oxygen intermediates, which cause structural degradation of lung tissue (Malazdrewich et al., 2004). In addition, neutrophils can secrete cytokines, which can amplify and sustain the inflammatory response in the lung resulting in lung pathology associated with disease. The inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a ), IL-1b and IL-8 play a pivotal role in the initiation of the interactions between cytokines, leukocytes, vascular endothelium, cellular adhesion molecules and soluble chemotactic factors.
Recent studies indicate that bovine IL-8 is a chemoattractant for neutrophils and plays a key role in the genesis of lung injury associated with bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis (Malazdrewich et al., 2001; Caswell et al., 2001).
In the mastitis of sheep due to M. haemolytica, adherence to mammary epithelial cells has been considered critical for colonization. In effect, a recent study in vitro (Vilela et al., 2004) has demonstrated that adherence and internalization mechanisms may be present in the onset of mastitis caused by M. haemolytica. These mechanisms may be an important feature of the development of mastitis, allowing bacteria to survive and persist in the mammary gland.
Pneumonic mannheimiosis is characterized in feedlot cattle by acute fibrino-purulent pneumonia. Morbidity is due to substantial weight loss, obstruction of bronchioles due to fibrinous exudate, accumulation of macrophages and fibrin in the alveoli, and subsequent thrombosis and lymphatic vessel distention. The disease can rapidly progress to fatality (Lo, 2001).
Septicaemia of sheep due to M. haemolytica takes two forms. One occurs in lambs less than 3 months old, involving severe pleuritis and pericarditis. The other occurs in lambs of 5-12 months of age and is acute or peracute and outbreaks of disease often coincide with a change in diet or other stress. It is postulated that microorganisms already present in the tonsils multiply and invade the adjacent tissues of the alimentary tract. Microorganisms enter the bloodstream as emboli and lodge in the capillary beds of the lung, liver and spleen. Rapid multiplication of M. haemolytica in these tissues leads to death (Mackie et al., 1995).
In ovine mastitis, the nursing lamb is suspected of both introducing the agent and providing the machanical trauma needed for the development of clinical disease, which is characterized by severe, usually unilateral, necrotizing inflammation of the mammary gland ('blue bag') (Dewani et al., 2002, Scott and Jones, 1998).
In adult camels, M. haemolytica has been isolated from pneumonic lungs and from cases of chronic, suppurative mastitis (Woubit et al., 2001; Alhendi, 2000; El Jakee, 1998).
|Drug||Dosage, administration and withdrawal times||Life stages||Adverse affects||Drug resistance||Type|
|amoxycillin + clavulanic acid||7 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||All Stages||No||Drug|
|danofloxacin||6 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||All Stages||No||Drug|
|florfenicol||20 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||Calf||No||Drug|
|marbofloxacin||2 mg/kg bodyweight per day s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||All Stages||No||Drug|
|Once PMH (Intervet)||2 ml i.m.; annual revaccination. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||Calf||No||Vaccine|
|One Shot (Pfizer)||2 ml s.c. at least 14 days before weaning, shipping or exposure to stress or infections. A booster is recommended. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.||No||Vaccine|
|oxytetracycline||200 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||Lamb||No||Drug|
|oxytetracycline||10 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||All Stages||No||Drug|
|Presponse SQ||Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.. Do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursing pregnant cows. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.||No||Vaccine|
|Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim)||Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m.; repeat in 14-28 days. Annual revaccinationis recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days of slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.||No||Vaccine|
|Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim)||Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m.; repeat in 14-28 days. Annual revaccination is recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days of slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.||No||Vaccine|
|Pulmo-guard PHM-1 (Boehringer Ingelheim)||Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c.; abooster dose is recommended 21 days before subsequent stress. Annual revaccination is recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days before slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.||No||Vaccine|
|Pyramid 4||Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.. Do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursing pregnant cows. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.||No||Vaccine|
|tilmicosin||15 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. Always seek veterinary advice before administering treatment.||Lamb||No||Drug|
|Triangle 9+PH-K||Inject 5 mil i.m., repeat in 14-28 days. Revaccinate calves at weaning; revaccinate annually. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.||No||Vaccine|
At present, treatment of bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis is based almost exclusively on systemic antibiotic therapy. In fact, there are many antibiotics that are used for treatment, often both in calves and in lambs. Examples are oxytetracycline, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin, tilmicosin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, talaromycin, florfenicol, with a dosage ranging from 6 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg (Aslan et al., 2002; Christodoulopoulos et al., 2002; Cusack, 2004; Frank, 2002; Hurd, 1999; Rowan et al., 2004; Sarasola et al., 2002; Schwan, 1998; Thomas et al., 2001; Traeder and Grothues, 2004).
Furthermore, metaphylactic administration of long-acting antibiotics (such as oxytetracicline) to calves on arrival at the feedlot has become a common preventive measure. This procedure reduces morbidity and mortality during the early feeding period in calves (Malazdrewich et al., 2004).
The bovine strains are more resistant than ovine strains to several antibiotics: ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc. (Euzeby, 1999, Singer et al., 1998).
The resistance to ampicillin is due to plasmids that code for a b -lactamase named ROB-1, the resistance to chloramphenicol is due to the synthesis of an acetyltransferase III coded by a plasmid that can also act on florfenicol. A chromosomal gene encodes for resistance to sulfamides (Euzeby, 1999).
Current evidence indicates that widespread use of antibiotics may have contributed to the emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of M. haemolytica (Malazdrewich et al., 2004; Euzeby, 1999). Nevertheless, mass medication of cattle with antibiotics also poses some serious problems. This therapeutical practise, in fact, promotes the trasfer of antibiotic resistance genes from animal pathogens to human bacterial pathogens. So alternative approaches to bovine mannheimiosis are being researched.
|Vaccine||Dosage, Administration and Withdrawal Times||Life Stages||Adverse Affects|
|Once PMH (Intervet)||2 ml i.m.; annual revaccination. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||-Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf|
|One Shot (Pfizer)||2 ml s.c. at least 14 days before weaning, shipping or exposure to stress or infections. A booster is recommended. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||-Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.|
|Presponse SQ||Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.. Do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursing pregnant cows. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||-Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.|
|Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim)||Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m.; repeat in 14-28 days. Annual revaccinationis recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days of slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||-Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.|
|Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim)||Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m.; repeat in 14-28 days. Annual revaccination is recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days of slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||-Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.|
|Pulmo-guard PHM-1 (Boehringer Ingelheim)||Single dose; inject 2 ml s.c.; abooster dose is recommended 21 days before subsequent stress. Annual revaccination is recommended. Do not vaccinate within 60 days before slaughter. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||-Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.|
|Pyramid 4||-Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.|
|Triangle 9+PH-K||Inject 5 mil i.m., repeat in 14-28 days. Revaccinate calves at weaning; revaccinate annually. 21-day slaughter withdrawal. Always seek veterinary advice before applying vaccines.||-Cattle & Buffaloes: Calf||Anaphylactic reactions may occur.|
Vaccination with formalized bacterins has been practised for almost 60 years with a questionable efficacy. In fact, killed bacterins induce agglutinating antibodies in vaccinated cattle but with little or no antitoxic response. Better protection has been demonstrated after immunization with live organisms, probably due to in vivo elaboration of toxin and other virulence factors. Several component vaccines have recently been introduced, and most are complex and composed mainly of soluble antigens, including capsular carbohydrate-protein antigens and leukotoxin. Vaccination using these vaccines stimulates both antitoxic and serospecific agglutinating activities (Auad et al., 2001; Choe et al., 2000; Frank et al., 2002; Kerkhofs et al., 2004; Marchart et al., 2003; Stevens et al., 1997).
At present there are many vaccines for preventing M. haemolytica infections besides the commercial products listed below. Always take veterinary advice before using vaccines or treatments mentioned in this Compendium.
Leukotox is a newly formulated bacterin-toxoid that uses a combination of oil, water and other potentiators of the immune system. The product was designed to be used with re-vaccination 2 to 3 weeks apart so that the animals would have the maximum effect from the bacterin. Vaccine for M. haemolytica and P. multocida.
LeukoTox 1 (AHH) is a vaccine for M. haemolytica only.
Once PMH (Intervet)
Must be used for vaccinating healthy cattle against respiratory disease caused by M. haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, administer 2 ml i.m., with annual revaccination, a single 2-ml dose is recommended.
One Shot (Pfizer)
It is a bacterin-toxoid for vaccination of healthy cattle as an aid in the prevention of infection caused by M. haemolytica type A1. Injected 2 ml s.c. least 14 days before weaning, shipping or exposure to stress or infectious conditions. A booster is recommended whenever subsequent stress or exposure is likely.
A 21-day slaughter withdrawal is required.
Anaphylactic reactions may occur.
Pyramid 4 plus Presponse SQ (Fort Dodge)
Pyramid 4 is a modified-live bovine herpes virus 1 (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine parainfluenzavirus 3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Presponse SQ is a preparation of M. haemolytica toxoid for vaccination of healthy dairy or beef cattle of 6 months of age or older. Inject 2 ml i.m. or s.c.; do not use in pregnant cows or calves nursed by pregnant cows.
21-day slaughter withdrawal period.
Anaphylactic reactions may occur.
Triangle 9+PH-K (Fort Dodge)
It is used for the vaccination of healthy cattle against IBR, BVDV, PI3, BRSV and infections caused by M. haemolytica and 5 most common strains of Leptospira. Inject 5 ml i.m., repeat in 14-28 days. Revaccinate calves at weaning, revaccinate annually.
21-day slaughter withdrawal.
Anaphylactic reactions may occur.
Presponse HM and Presponse SQ (Fort Dodge)
These vaccines provide cattle with protection against M. haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.
Pulmo-guard PH-1 (Boehringer Ingelheim)
This is a M. haemolytica bacterin toxoid, it contains leukotoxoids and antigens from chemically inactivated cultures of multiple isolates of the two bacteria in a triple adjuvant.
Ready to use, single dose, inject 2 ml s.c. in the front of shoulder and midway of the neck away from the suprascapular lymph node. A booster dose is recommended 21 days before subsequent stress. Annual revaccination is recommended.
Do not vaccinate within 60 days before slaughter.
Anaphylactic reactions may occur.
Pulmo-guard PH-M (Boehringer Ingelheim)
This is a M. haemolytica and P. multocida bacterin-toxoid and contains leukotoxoids and antigens from chemically inactivated cultures of multiple isolates of the two bacteria in a double adjuvant.
Ready to use, single dose, inject 2 ml s.c. or i.m. in the middle of the neck. Repeat in 14 to 28 days. Annual revaccination is recommended.
Do not vaccinate within 60 days before slaughter.
Anaphylactic reactions may occur.
PH Bac 1 (Agrilabs)
This is a M. haemolytica attenuated bacterin. Inject 2 ml i.m., no booster is needed.
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Date of report: 03/06/2013
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