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Farming in Tsetse Controlled Areas (FITCA) was a regional rural development programme composed of four projects at country level in Eastern Africa, namely, Ethiopia, Kenya Uganda and Tanzania. Funds for Rwanda and Burundi were budgeted under the Regional Component. The programme became operational in 1999 and came to an end in all countries, with the exception of Uganda, in December 2004.

The emphasis of the programme was different in each of the countries. In Ethiopia the project was primarily a capacity building programme with an emphasis on training of government personnel. In Uganda the project initially emphasised traditional approaches to tsetse control using the relevant government departments at district level. Districts affected by sleeping sickness were the target. The Uganda project focused on better farming and land use practices, emphasisedin the project title. Attempts were made to involve the private sector and NGOs. In Kenya, the starting premise was that the government no longer had the capacity to implement tsetse control and thus efforts were made to encourage farmer-based tsetse control methods and to involve the communities and the private sector from the outset. In Tanzania two private consultancy companies were the implementing agencies for two community-based projects with an emphasis on farmer-based tsetse control methods.

The programme included an Environmental Monitoring and Management Component (EMMC) to ensure that any changes resulting from the programme were environmentally sound and sustainable. Work on this aspect of the programme continued at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya.

Funding of 20 million EURO was provided by the European Development Fund from the Regional Indicative Programme (RIP) as well as from the respective National Indicative Programmes (NIPs). The approximate amounts spent on coordination at AU/IBAR and regional activities in addition to activities in the participating countries were as follows:

  • Regional (incl. EMMC): Euro 2,887,789
  • Ethiopia: Euro 2,147,320
  • Kenya: Euro 3,636,524
  • Tanzania: Euro 501,273
  • Uganda: Euro 4,330,082
  • TOTAL: Euro 13,502,989


The African trypanosomiases consist of several diseases affecting man and his livestock. Trypanosomes (the causative parasites) are transmitted amongst humans, domestic animals and wild vertebrate hosts by over 20 different species of tsetse flies. This disease complex has influenced human development throughout an extensive area of Africa for centuries, determining what areas could be settled, precluding human occupation of some while leading to overpopulation and desertification of others. The human disease, sleeping sickness, occurs in 36 countries and the livestock disease is a major constraint to agriculture production in over 10 million square kilometres.

Long-term aim of the programme

The long-term aim of the FITCA Programme was poverty alleviation, community-based tsetse control using appropriate and low cost technology and constant and continuous survey and monitoring of tsetse populations by the public veterinary services.

Results achieved by the programme

  • Increased livestock productivity
  • Improved human health
  • Increased agricultural production and Sustainable control and management of tsetse populations