Sustainable natural resource management systems established at the livestock-wildlife-environment interface
The first component of the Project will focus on creating conducive policy and institutional environments that facilitate climate change adaptation strategies in the livestock-wildlife-agriculture interface, with reduced incidence of natural resources based conflicts. The strong policy and institutional orientation will increase the likelihood of scaling up the natural resources community-based M&E framework into regional and national natural resources management strategies. This component will include the following activities:
Activity 1: Identification of policy entry points for supporting the implementation of priority adaptation options in pastoral and agro pastoral systems
A desk study will be carried out to review existing national/regional policy and strategy documents, development priorities, and budget allocations to identify policy and institutional barriers as well as policy opportunities and promising institutions that are needed to create an environment that supports climate change adaptation strategies. Analysis of key actors and their linkages as well as the interactions between policies and actors will be carried out to identify policy, institutional and organizational entry points and policy dialogue involving key stakeholders. The objective of this activity is to share information, receive feedback, and set priorities for reviewing regional and country policy frameworks and institutions (government, development agencies, non-governmental organizations) strategies and priorities to support regional, national and local level climate change adaptation strategies.
Activity 2: Development of Natural Resources Management Plans (CBNRM) and M&E frameworks
Community-based natural resource management simultaneously addresses the problems of poverty and environmental degradation. CBNRM represents a promising approach that encourages communities to take responsibility for managing their resources so that everyone benefits. Through a series of meetings and consultations with communities and partners, and based on lessons learned from other parts of the continent, CBNRM will be developed with communities around the protected areas or reviewed where they exist depending on variations in locations and legal, social, political and economic contexts. An iterative process of assessment will also be developed at multiple levels in order to make sound management decisions. Local monitoring tools will be combined with advanced tools like remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) to provide decision makers with more complete information. Baseline data for key indicators will be collected, packaged and made available for use by decision makers and other stakeholders.
Activity 3: Establishment of functional peace building and conflict resolution committees
As opposed to traditional structures in which community leadership and decision making obligations and mandates are vested in males (elders), peace committees are more inclusive, drawing representation from the community (elders, women, youths), civil society groups, community organizations, local administrations and governments. This makes peace committees superior structures that value the roles and contributions of the various groups in the community. This action will support the establishment and strengthening of peace building committees and conflict- resolution mechanisms based on regular inter-tribal meetings, including across international boundaries.
Degraded lands restored and rehabilitated through participatory community-based actions
This component will build on the CBNRM developed in component 1 and will focus on the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded land. Support will be provided to communities to embrace rehabilitation and restoration activities from physical, technical, socio-economic and cultural perspectives. Activities will include:
Activity 1: Development of zonation, including grazing plans, and the establishment of grazing committees
Implementing grazing planning with large herds of livestock and herders has shown the benefit of animal impact (the distribution of dung and urine, hoof action to break surface crusts for better water infiltration and soil-seed contact, trampling of un-grazed plants for better decomposition) and grazing (without over grazing plants) to bring about increased plant/crop productivity and diversity, soil fertility, and water capture and holding capacity to overcome desertification, reduce the risk of drought, and increase biological diversity. Functional grazing committees will be established and strengthened to develop and implement grazing plans. This will be done through consultation with communities, capacity building and support to implement the plans. It is envisaged that grazing committee members (community scouts) will provide training to herders in sustainable grazing practices.
Activity 2: Community-led rehabilitation of degraded land
This will consist of the identification and promotion of sustainable management and rehabilitation of indigenous rangelands: replanting/reseeding, creation of windbreaks, village nurseries establishment, land and water conservation, information and technology dissemination, capacity building. Support to protect and monitor the rehabilitated land will be provided to ensure that degraded lands recover.
'Climate-proof' livestock production systems and alternative means of livelihood provided to pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems in asals
This component will focus on improving livestock production and marketing and providing alternative livelihoods. This involves interventions to increase economic diversification and alternative livelihoods for pastoralists and agro-pastoralists. It will also involve increasing income from traditional herding of animals, through the reduction of the current constraints to livestock production, such as disease control, feeding and marketing. Activities under this component include:
Activity 1: Training and support to alternative and climate-proof livelihoods and livestock production interventions
This activity will commence with participatory scoping and training needs assessments in the target areas. The scoping analysis will include the geographic, institutional, market, policy and legislative factors impacting the alternative livelihoods option or livestock production intervention to be carried out (i.e. feed resources, breeding, ecotourism, diversification, handicraft). The action will avail micro-credit support for small start-up investments. A micro credit scheme managed by the communities will be developed based on the approach currently implemented in northern Kenya by AU-IBAR.
Activity 2: Strengthening community-based disease surveillance and the provision of animal healthcare services involving appropriate treatments against other endemic and production diseases and based on a cost recovery basis
Grazing committee members, wardens and Community-based Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) will be trained on early detection and reporting of disease outbreaks and/or suspicions. They will also be equipped with veterinary kits and basic stocks of veterinary drugs to intervene in cases of other endemic diseases. Such diseases include parasitic and tick borne diseases that quite often have just as big negative effects in terms of livelihoods and poverty reduction as TADs. The animal health delivery will be on a cost recovery basis and will follow the experiences and practices developed over the years of veterinary CAHWs networks and local veterinary drugs suppliers who operate business oriented services in pastoral areas. The livestock owners will be requested to contribute at least to the cost of the drugs and the cost of services predetermined by the community.
Activity 3: Strengthening local/grassroots livestock market associations (training, institutional support and infrastructure)
Livestock market associations will be trained to use novel ICT to access market information based on AU-IBAR and internet links (e.g. the Livestock Information Network and Knowledge System) experience in northern Kenya: (downloading and uploading information on WorldSpace radio technology, use of mobile phone, Word Wide Web, etc.). The proposed action will thereafter provide this equipment to the associations and ensure they are operational.
Activity 4: Strengthening women groups to develop basic entrepreneurial capacities
Under this activity, the proposed action will focus mainly on developing and strengthening entrepreneurial skills of women. This will be done through capacity building in group dynamics, leadership, basic financial management and record keeping, basic entrepreneurial skills, value chain addition, negotiation skills, etc. Specific grants will then be given to women via a micro-credit scheme to either start up or add value to their small scale enterprises (milk and beef processing, hides and skins, honey, herbal plant, handicraft, etc.).
Enhanced awareness and information sharing of best practices on sustainable natural resources management practices in response to increasing risks and vulnerability from climate change at the livestock-wildlife interface
This component will foster exchange of experiences and comparative learning at the regional level through dissemination of best practices and exchange visits. The activities include:
Activity 1: Identification of the target groups and facilitation of exchange visits for the dissemination of success stories and lessons learnt.
Based on specific needs identified by the community and/or any stakeholders, exchange visits will be organised either at the country, regional or continental levels, to share experience between communities, implementing partners or government officials of countries directly or indirectly benefiting from the action.
Activity 2: Documentation of the success stories and lessons learnt and sharing of information
This activity is core to the AU-IBAR strategy to become the repository of knowledge and information on animal resources in Africa in order to facilitate development of policies, guidelines and other decision-support tools and ensure harmonization as appropriate. Lessons learnt success stories, best practices will be documented in the form of policy briefs, posters, fact sheets, project reports and disseminated electronically via the AU-IBAR and partners' web sites and via AU-IBAR networks. They will also be available as printed materials, CD and video tapes. Most important will be the understanding of the factors of success and what needs to be improved for wider adoption by other communities.
Activity 3: Dissemination and progress assessment workshops
Technical workshops at the national, regional and continental levels will be organised regularly to assess progress on implementation and share experiences and lessons between implementing partners. It is also envisaged that teams of projects with the same scope (thematic and geographical) will be invited to these workshops for synergies and complementarities in interventions.